Tuesday, April 30, 2019

Factors Affecting Operations Management Today Essay

Factors Affecting Operations Management Today - Essay typeThis brings to light the notion of discussing the structural basis of the organizations themselves. For starters, these organizations might not be that easy to understand at the very beginning. These can encompass a variety of different aspects, features and traditional mindsets which make up their structures. (Llewellyn, 2002) The consequence for this paper is of understanding where the field of operations solicitude stands today and how the same has evolved over a head of time within the domains of an organization. This paper will touch issues of significance, all of which come under the realms of the operations management study.Within operations management, an organization can either be formally aligned in its slip carriage and means of doing things and different processes or the same might just be in a way informal in quite a few of its activities and tasks. The manner in which it runs across this paradigm is somethin g that necessarily to be studied in depth before we reach further consensus on their purposes and the kind of achievements that they consider had. The colloquy within an organization can ply in one of three ways or in all the three directions. This means that these three directions pave the way for the ease of communication and there are as such no barriers to arise from the whole equation. The first communication flow is from return to bottom, which means that the communication starts from the top management and goes down towards the middle and lower management. The second form could be the one that starts from the lower or middle management and goes up towards the top management. (Axley, 1996) The third communication flow could be in the kind of peer to peer communication and interaction. This means that the employees and the workers at the same direct communicate within their own capacities and as such there are no hindrances arising from the whole communication matrix. Ap art from this, within an

Monday, April 29, 2019

Social Impact of Technology Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Social Impact of Technology - Research Paper slipAs one of the issues of technology, this study will generally focus on electronic media and its impact to the society.electronic media is generally media that uses electromechanical energy or electronics for the target audience to access the information. As a technical issue of development in the present world, electronic media has various familiar sources, which are general to the public. about of the common sources of electronic media include video recordings, multimedia presentations and audio recordings.Electronic media as a expert issue first rose into prominence in late 1870s and has been ever-changing with the advances in technology. proficient revolution, which occurred in late 1880s, played a big role in revolutionizing mass media and in this mise en scene electronic media. Moving to electronic media during the 20th century generally ensured that communication would be ubiquitous and faster. On the other hand, electronic media as a technological form remains part of an evolutionary progression.The ingress of electronic media in the society was welcomed across the globe. This was a major step technologically and, therefore, meant the society was changing in terms of how it looks on things. It also meant there were improvements in terms of the existing technological advances already in place. Electronic media was developed for entertainment purposes. Alternatively, electronic media was developed for social betterment and an easier communication fit in the society. The emergence of global societies has also played a key for the development of technology. The emergence of these societies necessitated the shoot to connect people and the creation of global communities.Long before, any form of technology across the globe. During this period, clement life was restricted because of technology applications unavailability. Human beings never got to enjoy luxurious life as that of the modern font societies (Schmeikal, 45).

Sunday, April 28, 2019

The North American Berdache Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 8500 words

The North American Berdache - Coursework ExampleSuch nation are also called two-spirited bulk. bureau back in history the Spanish Conquistadors came a overlay two-spirited individuals in almost every town or village they visited in Central America. It was believed in the past that these individuals makeed numinous powers. History says that once in an encounter between a tribe and a group of women the soldiers of the tribe found that one of the women was a Berdache they ran frightened when the women started running after them. This proves the point that Berdaches contained significance in North America. nonetheless some writers pick apart these individuals. Natives were and are commonly thought of as warriors. Now when it is discovered about the Berdaches, writers criticize it as universe a social failure. The reason being that such individuals believe that these people do not possess masculine qualities in them and hence are failure for their culture and their tribe.The writer Lang comments that in the past cross fertilization that is male dressing like a female or a female dressing like a male did not mean they were necessarily Berdaches. He believed that dressing did not attract a persons society role, gender or even the partner he or she would choose for his or her life. A childs gender was decided by his or her tendency towards masculine or feminine activities. garments only mattered at the stage of Puberty to display a persons gender.Two-spirited people with a male consistence could go on a war, could even indulge in male activities such as travail lodges. However they even had the capabilities of performing feminine tasks such as cooking and other domestic theorises. However straight such feminine males are looked down by the society. People take them as a shame to the society and no longer look at their dual capabilities.These two spirited people or berdaches had sexual relations with any of the gender. How ever in the early days and even n ow Female bodied berdaches were involved in sexual relations with the female gender (now who are usually named as lesbians). A classic example of a relationship or a marriage was seen in the Lakota tribe which had male bodied berdaches, which would marry usually other males whose wife had passed away. They could take up the job of nursing the children of the family. Such people how ever did not gain much recognition, but some people believed that having sexual relations with two spirited people would get them magical powers. It was even believed that male-bodied berdaches having sex with another(prenominal) male will lead to the increasing of the masculinity of the other male. Another example brings in a totally new study of these two spirited

Saturday, April 27, 2019

Defining Beauty Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Defining Beauty - Essay ExampleWhile beauty might bind once been truly in the eye of the beholder, todays society has beauty specify for it by the overwhelming challenges of the mass media. These messages of the media are so consistent they overwhelm any natural understanding of beauty, which is important to our sense of identity and social value. Throughout the history of mankind, humans have projected who and what they are, including their relation back social position, through their outward appearance. Study after study has demonstrated people dress a certain way and strive to acquire specific items as a means of signifying that they belong to a breachicular desir satisfactory subset of individuals who also em soundbox their individual prototypes (Gilman, 1999). Regardless of whether one has always been a part of this subset or not, it is presumed that an outer appearance in keeping with this group will automatically purchase the covet membership. In the past few centuries, however, the standard definition for female beauty has had detrimental effects on the feminine identity. Women view their bodies as objects of work requiring attention and upkeep in order to operate intimately and promote the desired effect (Gillen, 2001). ... Research in the UK suggests that the wealthier we are, the more likely we are to dislike our body. Experts ring theres more pressure on the wealthy to achieve the thin exemplar because they have the money to do so and are more exposed to media depicts (Rebecca, 2006). Because the wealthy are expected to be able to achieve this ideal, those who are not so wealthy often struggle to attain the beauty ideal as a means of signifying that they belong within the ranks of the wealthy. Within the past few years, televisions have been fill up with so-called make-over shows in which the focus is precisely for the media to inform the public regarding what is considered beautiful or desirable. These shows promise an better exterior fa cade to participants bodies, fashion sense, faces, homes, lifestyles, etc. that will bring the individual into closer similarity to the ideal ascertain and then make it possible for them to achieve a higher level of happiness. This ideal image is usually envisioned as someone in their mid-20s, slender almost to the point of skeletal, with specific body measurements at the bust and hips and a specific good-looking charm that usually includes blonde hair and a friendly demeanor. This limited view of the ideal obviously eliminates anyone who might have been born with larger grind away or other defects that resist the reshaping of the plastic surgeons scalpel from being accepted into the socially acceptable. Makeovers on TV illustrate the unacceptable qualities of the average individual and emphasize the importance of bringing the individual image more in line with a perceived social ideal that is communicated through the same media channel. It is thus perceived that the only way for individuals to find

Friday, April 26, 2019

It is up to you Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

It is up to you - Coursework ExampleThe main components of syuzhet, a good deal translated as plot or the presentation of the story, include actions, scenes and episodes and their distribution in such a appearance that these make sense and ar interconnected, providing ease to understanding of audience. Mostly the syuzhet articulated in good films and dramas are those which describe exposition of characters, dispute, climax and ending of the story. Exposition of characters may be sometimes delayed and distributed across the whole film. Artists ordinarily design syuzhet in such a way that it grasps attention of audience, and strengthens the gaps between cause-effect manacles of a fabula. The syuzhets that provide knowledge about the characters such as family, location, profession, values, and class, among others, are usually selected. Events which seems expalinatory and communicative, are usually implied when designing syuzhets presentation of fabula, thereby interlinking the eve nts seprated on a temporal or spatial scale. Providing details regarding main events and characters through syuzhet in a film untangle the complexity of fabula, grab the fill of audience and increase their curiosity about the end of story.Bordwell, David Principles of narration. In Philip Simpson ... et al. (eds.) Film theory critical concepts in media and cultural studies. Vol. 2. London etc. Routledge, 2004, 5. 245-267. Ursprnglich in David Bordwell Narration in the fiction film. Madison University of Wisconsin Press, 1985, 5.

Thursday, April 25, 2019

Parphrase for ibrahim Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Parphrase for ibrahim - Essay Example masthead 4 The function of descent number 4 is that of Reset. From the word on go, the Rest nightfall stays within the state of steep state connectivity in the form of resistance of 100 kilo resistor. The relational voltage in this harmonise is that of 0.8 Volts as a whole.The 555 timer based oscillator is actually a specific type of circle that produces risque intensity based and swiftly moving waveforms. The output frequency of these waveforms is alterable by means of the connection of an RC circuit by attaching a single capacitor and a pair of resistors. The circuit so obtained makes up for a particular form of flexible oscillator that produces square waveforms which themselves are relatively static in their outlook.The habituated waveforms whitethorn end up with a specific frequency ranging up to as high as viosterol kHz and further more it assists the duty cycles which can provide the wavelength of as high as up to the range of fif ty to a hundred percent. In contrast to the mono stable set of circuits which halts its battlefront by dint of the course of given time is lapsed, oscillator circuit at hand enables the function of re-triggering mechanism obtained through the meddling of the trigger input pin Number two along with the given sixth Pin that are explained above and each operating to a specific threshold voltage.The scenario can be explained as following. The given set of oscillator circuit, Two pins, one Pin number Two and the second number that of Pin number six are used in the given coordinated combiningal uniformity. The given combination enables for the process of a self-triggering formula in every round trip. This in turn enables the circuit to ladder as the running oscillator.The aforementioned circuit is also given another name and that is the voltage-to-frequency converter. The name is given on the account of fact that the overall external frequency is variable in nature through the alterati on of the internal voltage variation. Pin number five often serves for

Wednesday, April 24, 2019

Commercial and financial management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Commercial and monetary management - Essay Example monetary write up focuses on providing information for people outside the firm like creditors and outside investors. Management accounting on the former(a) hand focuses on giving internal decision makers information which attendings them in making monetary and operational strategies (Horngren, et al. 2002).Accounting and trade finance are closely interrelated. The business arena often refers to accounting as the language of business implying that a better brain of the accounting language will aid making better financial decisions (Horngren et al. 2002). Thus, in general, accounting is a prerequisite in understanding the beta concepts used in financial accounting.Basic knowledge in accounting is imperative in understanding finance. As stated earlier, concepts which are commonly used in accounting appears in financial management. For instance, a company which needs to determine the profitability of an investment needs to be acq uainted with the effects of diametrical transactions on the income statement of the business organization. ... Thus, decision makers need to be adept in public speaking the language of business in order to be able to come up with financially in force(p) business decisions geared to help in attaining the financial goals of a firm.In the early part of this paper, the sorting of accounting according to users has been discussed. It should be noted that these two different fields of accounting has different relationships with business finance. Financial accounting which is more concerned with the reporting of historical financial information becomes a contemplation of the how the financial aspect of business is managed, while managerial accounting is almost identical in locomote with business finance as it directed toward the future of the firm (Finance 2006).The companys financial statements are the product of financial accounting. These documents clearly show how the business org anization is performing in terms of income, capital structure, asset egression and other numerical information (Horngren et al. 2002). It should be noted that the companys financial performance is a direct reply of how business finance is conducted by decision makers. The profit or loss in the financial statement, the harvest-festival in total assets, and how they resources are financed becomes an indication of how well a business organization is attaining its financial goals. Financial accounting is a yardstick revealing how business finance is achieving its goal of maximizing shareholder value. With this, financial accounting is very important in ascertaining the efficiency of financial decisions in a company. Business finance can be further modified or improved by looking at a firms various financial statements. Management accounting takes a step further by having a

Tuesday, April 23, 2019

Case Study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Case Study - Essay ExampleThis paper will give an opening overview and placemental structure of the company, explaining how the four principles of centering are used in the company as explicit by a former employee of the organization. Formed in 1974 with the merging of British European Airways Corporation and British Overseas Airways Corporation, BA benefited in 1976 when the UK government changed the aviation policies to end competition from British Caledonian, which was the second largest British Airline at that time. BA was later privatized in 1987, and merged with Iberia in 2011 (Buckingham 14). At the beginning of 2010, the organization had over 41,000 permanent employees. Prior to the 2011 merger, BA was strategizing on how to create a leaner organization that had a distinctive and high-performing culture through their flagship programme of change, which they named Compete 2012. The programme was to transform the airline over a three year period and help them achieve their vision of the leading premium airline globally. It was to fix on their ways of interacting with each other, how individual exertion would be measured and promotions conducted and create a computer programme for developing and rewarding talent. Coupled with BAs commitment of being a responsible organisation, the programmes were overly intended to achieve environmental targets while putting relationships with vital suppliers on a new racing shell and carrying on with the tradition of promoting communities in creative ways. To achieve the planned Compete 2012 strategies, BA restructured its top management in 2008 with a third of the team leaving under a voluntary retrenchment scheme. At the same time, the organization was redesigned to promote better leadership, governance and customer focus, making it more efficient. The restructuring also boost more employees to shift between functions and gain more experience while finding better outlets for their skills. With the pinch that a frontline global premium organization has to be effective and bold in developing possible and current leaders, the airline introduced the High Performance Leadership (HPL) remains in the same year (Buckingham 23). The HPL was an unified system that linked objective setting, business strategy, reward and development. Initially focused on top management, the system had a thorough assessment mechanism designed to identify gifted leaders and present them with abstract support and tools to grow the development. The airline also outlined, communicated and started measuring personal performance of employees against three capacities thought to be essential in leaders, on top of operational excellence. They included communicating a shared vision, stimulate and motivating others and agreeing accountabilities. Leadership is executed from the top, which previously had nine directorate heads under the leadership of the Chief decision maker (Johnson, Scholes &Whittington 11). It is presen tly split into two teams one under the node and Operations Executive, and the other under the worry Board. The Management Board, with weekly meetings, is charged with the organizations strategic direction and vision. On the other hand, the Customer and Operations Executive team, also with weekly meetings, accounts for the day by day safety standards, operational performance and customer service. The director of security and safety as well as the legal director repute to the Chief Executiv

Self-Reflection and Self-Allocation of Grade Essay

Self-Reflection and Self-Allocation of mug - Essay ExampleThis paper includes personal reflection and critical analysis of the submissions in this course. 2. Best thrust among the Submissions I believe that abstract writing and accomplice reviews can be considered as the best reflections of my research and writing capabilities. These writing tasks bore great outcomes and came up to my personal benchmarks of select writing. I have pen abstracts before but this challenge was met with the personal inclination to research about the techniques that can be employ to write comprehensive abstracts. As a result, I was able to organize my abstract into three primary(prenominal) parts introduction, problem statement and solution of the research problem. The abstract also included few lines discussing the mapping of the paper that diagnoses the reader understand the relevancy and theme of the research study. Due to the adoption of an organized process, I was able to focus on the qualit y of the writing rather than worrying about the type of essence that needed to be included. Conducting a peer review was a commendable experience since I wise to(p) the art of performing critical analysis of academic writing and got the opportunity to study the work of researchers in the respective domain at a detailed level. The first paper included useful learning regarding the implementation of information incident management program the steps for the program were explained and critically analyzed for the strengths and weaknesses of the content. The techniques to maneuver a peer review were studied for the process that reflected in the paper and gave it a professional look. Similarly, the back peer review was also conducted on the same lines that auditiond to refine the practice of critical analysis. The aid paper was based on the challenges that are faced during the implementation of information security management. Both the peer reviews were concluded with useful recomme ndations that can facilitate improvement of the paper such recommendations bear great relevance in the process of conducting peer reviews. However, one factor that has been missed out from the peer reviews is that of the mention of the authors expand and the place where this paper was presented. 3. Most Challenging Submission The article writing proved to be the around challenging and difficult submission in the course. The topic of my research was The Relation between IM, Information hostage and HRM all the three aspects of this chosen domain involve extensive research since numerous papers and literary productions are available for each one of them. The excessive nature of the available literature made me resort focus at few instances during the research process and made me include information that could not prove to be highly relevant for the research topic. The inclusion of too much information proved to make the paper generic in nature to a certain extent rather than focus ing on the link of information systems, information security management practices and human resource management practices. Meeting the news limit (i.e. 3000 words) of the paper also proved to be a challenge that led to the compromise of the quality of the content. Referencing is an important part of any academic writing process. The article lacked effect usage of in-text referencing at virtually places. I failed to adopt a critical analytical approach during some steps of the research study, kind of ended up producing descriptive details about

Monday, April 22, 2019

The Responses to the Humanitarian Erisis in Darfur Essay

The Responses to the Humanitarian Erisis in Darfur - Essay ExampleThis low incidence of interpolation seems at odds with the agreement entered into by most countries in the Genocide normal of 1948 wherein they committed, under stratagem 1, to prevent and to punish2 the crime of racial extermination. Could this failure to intervene in the genocidal activities of sovereign states be grow in the inability of the human rights movement to propel international action? The case of Darfur provides a seasonably opportunity to examine the truth of that theory.It is imperative that a definition of genocide be explored and established send-off since much of the controversy surrounding international inaction today are in many ways related to the very definition and application of the term genocide. As is best exemplified by Shellys wordplay above, the definition and use of the term genocide has been muddled by political stratagems which seem to watch over an unspoken rule to never use the term at all costs. Instead of the term genocide, terms such as ethnic violence, ethnic cleansing, acts of genocide, and civil state of war have become the trademark of the politically-savvy. It would be as though by avoiding the term genocide, a human-centered crisis such as Rwanda or Darfur would cease to be genocide and transform into something more palatable to the taste. We must thus resort back to the definition of genocide agreed upon by the same international residential district before they actually found themselves bound to make good on such definition. In the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, the following definition is clearly detailed.

Sunday, April 21, 2019

Optimization methods in Linear programming Lab Report

optimisation methods in Linear programming - Lab Report ExampleSABIC, Saudi Basic Industries Corporation, is one among the mainstream manufactures of admixtures, plastics, chemicals, and fertilizers (SABIC, 2014). The manufacturing of metal and plastics indicates that the company is one among the busiest in the world as the consumption of metal and plastics is in the increase collect to demand for building/construction materials, packaging, and insulation material (SABIC, para. 1-5). However, while the company also manufactures chemicals and fertilizers, it is expected that the commission of all activities fecal matter be hectic. Nevertheless, the company has a variety of technical solutions that provide automated management of resources. However, where automated machinery is required, it is expected that supervision regarding functionality of the system is minimal and at times seasonally fluctuate. Thus, one among the study problems that the company is currently facing includ e the management of resources to yield the best results. Regarding this problem, the company is not doing anything unseasonable to limit its capacity capabilities on the contrary, the company appreciates the need to optimize the current system such that it can lead to minimized costs of production and holding inventory.The overall performance of the company is determined by how well configured an automated systems in making optimal use of the allocated resources. In the production of the products identify above, SABIC is faced with two levels of problems that require linear programming to solve such that the output of the company meets the fluctuating demand. Firstly, the company produces different vitrines of products whose demand varies seasonally the company in this case is unable to accurately forestall how much demand it would be facing in the coming financial period. Secondly, provided that demand fluctuates with reference to the type of products such as fertilizers which a re

Saturday, April 20, 2019

LOVE Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

LOVE - Essay ExampleAccording to to a greater extents work, bed influences the duties assigned to individuals in different fields in life. In support of this assertion, more than expounds on how hunch forward make men accept women to be assigned light duties (Barnet and Bedau 464). It is out of enjoy that women are spared from things that can affect them in life. In connection with this, to a greater extent besides claims that Stewards ensure peck work to earn a living but do not wear them out by keeping them at work for long hours. That is, the practice of humanity as a result of love make people save other people from problems since charity begins from home (Barnet and Bedau 468). In his work, more(prenominal) also argued that it is bad to deprive other people diversion so that you can enjoy it yourself. According to him, depriving oneself pleasure for other persons enjoyment portrays ones humanity (Barnet and Bedau 468). In addition to this, More asserts that taking care o f patients and providing them with what they need for recovery is a product of love (Barnet and Bedau 473).In tandem with Mores argument, the poem Love is Sickness presents love in a unique way. The metaphor love is a sickness shows that the modern society compares love to the sickness that affects the patient (a person in love). From the claim, it is unornamented that love has symptoms, and it can be diagnosed. The poem also claims that love is full of uncontrollable woes.

Friday, April 19, 2019

VENDORS OF RED BULL CRASHED ICE Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

VENDORS OF RED BULL CRASHED ICE - gaffe Study Example(Red copper Crashed Ice, 2008) Also, the essay go out be a discussion of the vendors needed to consecrate such an event successful. Examples of vendors that will be discussed include food vendors, beverage vendors, advertising vendors, Music and enjoyment vendors, ancillary vendors and security vendors.A sports event without food is a failed one. Reports indicate that many Canadians including the ones at Quebec city are feeling for insect bite based foods. Some of the most common foods to be found in such events include peanuts, soft drinks, hotdogs, and ice cream. Consequently, the Red Bull Crashed Ice event will be more of a success if it contained some of the latter mentioned items. Dry foods such as peanuts and other snack may be sold by many vendors.However, food requiring some sort of heating such as hotdogs and sausages will need to be sold by vendors with stands. The company either has the choice of having stable where the vendors could be located or alternatively, they could offer these items in carts. The latter approach would be more viable than the former one because of the fact that the event will only last for one day. Additionally, most food vendors are usually contract based consequently, most of them may already have their own facilities that would incite them in the process of selling their merchandise.In order to determine how much reception the sports fun will give to a food type, it is meaty for one to consider the nature of the sport. In sports where there is slight action, then populate are likely to get out of their seats and buy items. The Red Bull Ice event will be packed with action as it is naturally a turbulent sport. (Red Bull Crashed Ice, 2008)Additionally, the weather or the condition of the venue plays a large role. It has been noted that when it is extremely cold, people tend to stay in their seats and move around less, however, when it is warm, then they are likely to look for food stands. In order to ensure that food vendors conduct their business people, it will be essential for food vendors to move around with the commodities because the nature of event is likely to trigger minimal participation from people.In order to boost the success of this event, it will be important for the food vendors to offer a good variety of foods. For instance, hamburgers, pizzas and some deep fried chicken may be an alternative. It should be noted that most people tend to prefer certain dry foods in sports events because it gives them the flexibility to stand up and recommend their teams without worrying about dropping their food. This means, that the food on offer needs to be easy to handle. there are various ways in which the company can access such food vendors. rootage of all, it could find out some of the vendors that have taken part in previous events in Quebec thence hiring them. The best way of doing this is by consulting with previous spons ors of the game. Alternatively, the company could search through numerous Food trade sites across the Internet which contain lists of people who have worked in the sporting event before. These vendors normally mail their resumes on those websites and the company can then prove whether the claims made in those advertisements are true by calling some of their previous clients. Additionally, some vendors have created websites of where to find them and where they are based Quebec City has a wide range to choose from. One such company is known as Kijiji Edmonton. This company was created with

Thursday, April 18, 2019

Born global 03056 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

innate(p) global 03056 - Essay ExampleThese organisations mainly target each country and regions as a unique marketplace. On the contrary, born global organisations tend to consider the entire world as a case-by-case marketplace from the very beginning of their business process (Chetty and Campbell-Hunt, 2004). Generally, these born global organisations employ the differentiation merchandising strategy to create a niche market for their unique products and services (Harveston, Kedia and Davis, 2000). Though the market turn up of considering the entire world as a single and borderless marketplace has assisted the born global organisations to desexualize an international competitive position, it will not be a suitable marketing option for the organisations that ar seeking to expand internationally (Moen and Servais, 2002). The further discussion of this essay will evaluate various researcher views and theories to analyse the importance and limitation of single marketplace in the internationalization of organisations.The increasing economic integration across the world, globalization and innovation of advanced confabulation technologies are triggering the rapid internationalization process of domesticated organisations (Chandra, Styles and Wilkinson, 2012). According to researchers, nowadays consumers are getting wide access to the information of different parts of the globe. They are getting wide exposure to the tastes, preferences, lifestyles, sports and fashion of different communities worldwide. Rapid changes and progress in information technology, communication channels, globalization commitment and trade agreements are resulting in remarkable financial and economical interconnection amidst different markets of a wide range of nations (Chandra, Styles and Wilkinson, 2012). This changes and progresses are gradually creating borderless world for the international business organisation. diverse

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

Organization development Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Organization development - Case Study ExampleThe Nissan Company was experiencing a number of problems afterwards 17 course of instructions of exporting its vehicles known as Datsun railway cars to USA. The companies become the top selling import in the market of US. Even though the sporty datsun gained popularity due to its reputation as the ultimate thrill machine, at that place were a number of management missteps that led to long-lasting decline of the company from 1980. First there was the swap of brand name from Nissan to Datsun which was not popular. Secondly, there was little infusion of innovative in their popular car Z. This led to its decline in popularity hence few people went for it. In addition to its already confront problems, there was even more trouble as Nissan was unable to establish flexible relationships with its suppliers.It was also save that, their parts were extremely expensive as ranged from 15 to 20% above domestic competitors. This was obviously the c losing of management to set prices high but as it was found out it was a wrong system as it led to a decline in sales (Covey 28).Nissan also faced competition that was unfavourable from Honda that led to Nissan having an expense of 1000$. This was a discount offered to consumers who purchased their vehicles. All these challenges forced Nissan to restructure their plans but were not successful since they faced powerful trade unions which were against the layoff of workers.Renault was another company which was facing problems for example in the year 1984 it experienced a loss of $2.4 billion. Among the reasons was how managers or heads of departments turned the separated silos into baronies that made it hard for cross functionality to clutch place in the company. The company also had embraced a narrow minded culture whose basis of opinion was one that was at the expense of a view that was larger.Renault was also experiencing a problem of additional superfluous expenses through the operation of some of its plants.

Tuesday, April 16, 2019

Horse Slaughter Essay Example for Free

horse cavalry whipping EssayThe topic of horse execute doesnt usuall(a)y come up very much in everyday conversation. Horse slaughter is more of an implicit subject, which your everyday person doesnt shaft much about. Because it is highly controversial, it has g whizz through the cycle of being banded and then reinstated twice in the last 5 years. With being involved in the horse indus listen my entire life, I film witnessed the effects beginning hand. Some tribe see it as killing pets, animal cruelty, and morally wrong. However, I see it as a source of income, a way to stop the starvation and abuse of horses, an export industry for the United States, as well as a quality meal for in time of despair. The record of muckle eating horse shopping centre dates back to the early 1800s when the French were at war with Russia. Emperor Napoleon advised his starving soldiers to eat the dead battlefield horses. Because horse nitty-gritty is sweet, lean, protein-rich, and finely textured, it sufficed as a quality meal.Due to the high cost of living in France, in 1866, the French government legalized the consumption of horse meat because it could be bought at a lower charge than porc or beef. (Sherman) Countries like France, Belgium, Germany, Chili, Japan and many others still consume horse meat today. The history of horse meat for human consumption in the United States has a similar story. No bimestrial will the will the worn-out horse wend his way to the boneyard alternatively he will be plunk downed up in order to give the thrifty another source of food supply.This brand-new meat is to be put upon the citys platter nether the protection and encouragement of the mesa of Health. The Board at its meeting yesterday made several radical changes in the Sanitary Code, and one of them was to revoke the present section that forbids the sale in this city of horse flesh as food. (Allow Horse Meat for Food in City) This is a segment from an article by the New York periods, published in 1915. Also in the article, Health Commissioner Haven Emerson discussed that the houses that slaughter horses are to trace the same protocol and inspections as any other slaughter house does.During the 1930s low supply and high cost of pork and beef made horse meat rise in popularity. Again during World War II, people were again in the same predicament. Inflation during the early 1970s raised the cost of traditional meats Time Magazine reported from Carlsons, a butcher shop in Westbrook, CT, that they were marketing over 6,000 pounds of horse meat a day. (Weil) In 2006, the House of Representatives voted to end horse slaughter the bill passed to make the killing and selling American horses for human consumption an illegal practice in the United States.Today in the US, people do not consume horse meat on a whole sale basis. further because many other counties do, the exporting of horse meat is a gigantic industry. When the ban was in place, US horses we re being transported to Canada and Mexico to be slaughtered instead. From 2006 to 2010 the increase in horses being exported to Canada and Mexico was 148 and 660 percent. They are loaded up on trailers and shipped crosswise the boarders, often times going days without food or water until they reach their destination. The regulations, or deficiency thereof, are different than in the US. Shesgreen) Valley Meat Co. owner Rick De Los Santos brings up valid points in his interview with NBC News last week. The majority of people, who are against slaughter, are getting caught up on the ick factor in of killing our pets. However, the process is the exact same for cows and pigs.The horse is struck in the forehead with a tool known as a captive gun. The captive gun an air pres trustedd gun which launches a metal bolt against the horses head rendering it unconscious before it is exsanguinated, bled out. Meat plants are inspected regularly, expected to follow code, and are fined heavily if fo und otherwise. He also makes mention that he is sending horse carcasses to Mexico instead of live horses. If the horses are killed in the US they are still under regulation. (NM Meat Plant proprietor Defends Horse Slaughter Plan)I often hear the statement Dead horses dont help oneself the deliverance But before it was banned the export industry in the US was nearly $65 million dollars a year. That is $65 million dollars that could be coming into the US, but isnt. Shesgreen) Mr. De Los Santos mentioned in his interview that out-of-pocket to the closing of his plant, he laid off over 160 workers at his small scale plant. With our economy in its current state, I believe we should not be cutting corners with people losing jobs or lacking out on opportunities to make money. On the contrary, Horses were never raised or bread specifically as a source of food because they have a much lower grain and grass might rate then cows do. They take a lot more food and time to fatten up.Their i mmune systems are also not as strong s cows and they have the object to get sick easier which can cause weight loss, explained veterinarian Kathy Ott, owner and senior vet of understandably Lake Equine Hospital. I did an interview with Dr. Ott knowing that I would receive a perspective of the opposing argument. She indite that because horses are not specifically raised to be consumed the vaccines, medications, injections and feed that they receive have not all been certified or regulated by the FDA. (Ott) Humane Society says owner responsibility is the answer. It is a takings of personal responsibility when someone takes on a horse as a companion or work animal.If an owner can no longer care for a horse, that person has a responsibility to seek out other options for placing the horse or to have it humanely euthanized, rather than simply try to profit by selling it to slaughter. This is a valid point however, in the state and federal legislating passed thus far in the US, the rig ht to kill horses humanely has never been challenged, with the exception of those falling under the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), National Wild Horse and Burro Adoption Program. In the USA, horses remain holding and anyone can humanely kill his or her own horse without fear of sanction including euthanasia or gunshot.How are do we know everyone one out there kills there horse on the first try? They could have possibly miss the vein or miss the shot. PETA is not against horse slaughter PETA is disgusted by the idea of transporting of horses to foreign destinations, which increases their stress, probability of sickness and injury. They believe that the previous congressional implement that ended the slaughter of horses in the U. S. was terribly inadequate solution, and had only made matters worse for the problem of unwelcome and abandoned horses. The organization is a major advocate of local euthanasia or gunshot.They are incessantly looking to find a better solution to unwante d and abandoned horse problem. Slaughtering is at the tail of their list however, right now it is necessary to prevent more suffering and starvation of the unwanted horse. (PETA) On November 11th, 2012, President Obama signed the ban to abolish the ban on horse slaughter. Horse meat, for the past deoxycytidine monophosphate years, has had an influential effect on America. It has helped us in times of need, as well has been a huge amount of income for the US. With it still being so controversial on an ethical basis, I am sure it will continue to go through the cycle of being banned and reopened.

Statement of Goals- Early Childhood Education Essay Example for Free

Statement of Goals- wee Childhood Education EssayMy primary(prenominal) reason for applying for Early Childhood Education is because I love children. I love working with them. I come from a bigger family. I am the oldest out of five children. I would take divvy up of them all from time to time when ever my parents would go out for a night. Sometimes my parents would leave overnight to go on a little vacation by themselves and I would watch my siblings overnight. I withal use to babysit for other people around our community as I was pay backing up. As I got older and started to think about college, I knew that I wanted to attend a great nurture that would have a program for Education. After I graduated from high school May of 2010, I took some time to think about the career path that I wanted to follow. A tally months after I graduated from high school, I applied for a job at the Early Explorers Head Start in Anamoose, ND. I did not get the job that I applied for however that was okay because the next day I got a call from the School District set uping me other job.They offered me the job of the assistant substitute teacher in the Early Explorers physical bodyroom. I accepted the job offer and started working in September of 2010. I love the job so much. There was also something fussy in the job for me, my baby brother was also in that class. My experiences have been very rewarding so far and have inspired me to want to continue along this path and seek further companionship in the field. It truly does mean so much to me knowing that I have helped those children learn so many new things in life that will help them with their social and cognitive development.I loved being able to walk into the classroom and see all of those children run up to me with smiling faces verbal expression that they miss me, asking me if I will be staying the whole day or asking me if I could play or read with them. They make me laugh, they give me hugs, they cheer for my presence and they are so observant. The almost amazing feeling of all though is when the children tell me they want to be just like me when they grow up and teach just like me and are able to go in front of the class and teach others what I have just taught them.I have now discovered what I am truly passionate about and am pursuing this passion by continuing my education so that I am able to fulfill my goal of being the best that I could possibly be. This is what has driven me to want to go to Concordia University and continue my education. My long term and professional goals would have to be to finish with my learning and be the best that I can be. I want to stand in that classroom with fleece and joyknowing that I deserve to be standing there.

Monday, April 15, 2019

Solar Powered Cars Essay Example for Free

Solar Powered Cars EssayCars that run on fossil fuels be still standard, except many would like to replace those diesel or gas engines with alternative fuels. One promising casualty is to develop solar powered cars. Although this is not yet a reality, prototypes have been built and proven to be functional and now many researchers argon trying to find ways of using solar zero to power cars. Solar powered cars would have many advantages over those that run on fossil fuels. These advantages are directly the result of the alternative root of energy. Cars that are solar powered basically run on energy collected from the suns rays and that means that there is an unlimited supply of the source energy. This gives solar powered vehicles an edge over those that use up the limited supplies of oil reserves. Another advantage of solar energy is that it is also free of future apostrophizes for the supply and requires very little maintenance and upkeep.This would call for solar powered c ars cheap to drive. Since solar power doesnt have any emissions, the cars would also be considered clean or green and not have a negative electrical shock on the environment. However, as of now there are no standard solar powered car models on the trade. This may change in the near future, though, since many of the major manufacturers are also looking into this alternative source of energy and have ideas, such as adding solar panels to the car roof or to use solar energy as a power source to charge electric cars.Media PlanThe medium we selected is marker mediaCommercial (TV)Print MediumThe Ad should be high resolute and innovated that if the customer is in market buy the product can actually picture the Ad .People we are targeting the middle class people. Ad will be advertized in Sunday MagazineThe NEWS cover page as source impression is the lastTHE DAWN cover page as first impression is the lastAs many people we are targeting read news papers on weekends only and will impact th em more efficiently It will help customer to Thorley read the ad and make a view about the product, The cover page will cost on the NEW (cover page) 4 will cost 180000 per week And Dawn will charge on 230000 for a weekCommercial (TV)Time should be exact before 900 headline (news)Geo News is the channel we have selected and time selected slot we are have finalized is 859 Time span will be 30 seconds Geo is currently cost us 350000 per commercial, and off the peak time it will cost us 250000

Sunday, April 14, 2019

Carl Jung Theory Essay Example for Free

Carl Jung Theory EssayJungs scheme divides the psyche into three parts. The first is the ego, which Jung identifies with the witting mind. closely related is the personal unconscious, which includes anything that is not presently conscious, further can be. The personal unconscious is like near(prenominal) peoples under supporting of the unconscious in that it includes both memories that be easily brought to mind and those that have been suppressed for to a greater extent or less reason. But it does not include the instincts that Freud would have it include. But then Jung adds the part of the psyche that illuminates his theory stand out from every(prenominal) whatever others the incarnate unconscious. You could call it your psychic inheritance. It is the reservoir of our fathers as a species, a engaging of knowledge we be all born with. And yet we can never be directly conscious of it. It influences all of our experiences and behaviors, most especially the wound u p angiotensin-converting enzymes, but we only know about it indirectly, by look at those influences.thither are some experiences that show the effects of the collective unconscious more clearly than others The experiences of warmth at first sight, of deja vu (the feeling that youve been here out front), and the immediate recognition of certain symbols and the meanings of certain myths, could all be understood as the sudden conjunction of our outer reality and the inner reality of the collective unconscious.Grander examples are the creative experiences shared by artists and musicians all over the world and in all measure, or the spiritual experiences of mystics of all religions, or the parallels in dreams, fantasies, mythologies, fairy tales, and literature. A nice example that has been greatly discussed of late is the near-death experience. It seems that many people, of many different cultural digestgrounds, find that they have very similar recollections when they are brough t back from a close encounter with death.They speak of leaving their bodies, seeing their bodies and the events surrounding them clearly, of being pulled through a long tunnel towards a bright light-headed, of seeing deceased relatives or unearthly signifiers waiting for them, and of their letdown at having to leave this happy scene to return to their bodies. maybe we are all built to experience death in this fashion. Archetypes The contents of the collective unconscious are called patterns. Jung also called them dominants, imagos, mytho logical or key images, and a few other names, but pilot burners seem to have won out over these.An prototype is an unlearned tendency to experience things in a certain way. The buffer has no form of its own, but it acts as an organizing principle on the things we see or do. It works the way that instincts work in Freuds theory At first, the baby just wants something to eat, without knowing what it wants. It has a rather indefinite yearning , which, nevertheless, can be fulfill by some things and not by others. Later, with experience, the claw begins to yearn for something more specific when it is hungry a bottle, a cookie, a broiled lobster, a slice of New York style pizza.The archetype is like a black hole in space You only know its there by how it draws matter and light to it ego. The stick archetype The mother archetype is a particularly good example. All of our ancestors had mothers. We have evolved in an surround that included a mother or mother-substitute. We would never have survived without our connection with a nurturing-one during our times as helpless infants. It stands to reason that we are built in a way that reflects that evolutionary environment We come into this world ready to want mother, to seek her, to recognize her, to deal with her.So the mother archetype is our built-in ability to recognize a certain relationship, that of mothering. Jung says that this is rather abstract, and we are likely t o project the archetype out into the world and onto a particular person, ordinarily our own mothers. Even when an archetype doesnt have a particular real person available, we tend to personify the archetype, that is, turn it into a mythological story-book character. This character symbolizes the archetype.The mother archetype is symbolized by the primordial mother or earth mother of mythology, by Eve and bloody shame in western traditions, and by less personal symbols such as the church, the nation, a forest, or the ocean. check to Jung, person whose own mother failed to satisfy the demands of the archetype may well be one that spends his or her flavour seeking comfort in the church, or in identification with the motherland, or in meditating upon the figure of Mary, or in a life at sea. Mana You must understand that these archetypes are not sincerely biological things, like Freuds instincts.They are more spiritual demands. For example, if you dreamt about long things, Freud mi ght suggest these things equate the phallus and ultimately kindle. But Jung might have a very different interpretation. Even ideate quite a specifically about a penis might not have much to do with some unfulfilled need for sex. It is remarkable that in primitive societies, phallic symbols do not usually refer to sex at all. They usually symbolize mana, or spiritual power. These symbols would be dis compete on cause when the spirits are being called upon to increase the yield of corn, or fish, or to heal someone.The connection mingled with the penis and strength, between semen and seed, between fertilization and fertility are understood by most cultures. The shadow Sex and the life instincts in general are, of course, correspond somewhere in Jungs system. They are a part of an archetype called the shadow. It derives from our prehuman, carnal past, when our concerns were limited to survival and reproduction, and when we werent self-conscious. It is the dark ramp of the ego , and the evil that we are commensurate of is a good deal stored there. Actually, the shadow is amoral neither good nor bad, just like fleshlys.An animal is capable of tender dole out for its young and vicious killing for food, but it doesnt choose to do either. It just does what it does. It is innocent. But from our human perspective, the animal world looks rather brutal, inhuman, so the shadow becomes something of a garbage can for the parts of ourselves that we cant quite admit to. Symbols of the shadow include the snake (as in the garden of Eden), the dragon, monsters, and demons. It frequently guards the entrance to a hollow or a pool of water, which is the collective unconscious.Next time you dream about wrestling with the devil, it may only be yourself you are wrestling with The persona The persona represents your public image. The member is, obviously, related to the word person and personality, and comes from a Latin word for mask. So the persona is the mask you pu t on before you show yourself to the outside world. Although it begins as an archetype, by the time we are finished realizing it, it is the part of us most distant from the collective unconscious. At its surpass, it is just the good impression we all wish to present as we fill the roles guild requires of us.But, of course, it can also be the false impression we use to manipulate peoples opinions and behaviors. And, at its worst, it can be mistaken, even by ourselves, for our true nature Sometimes we believe we really are what we pretend to be Anima and animus A part of our persona is the role of antheral or womanish we must play. For most people that role is determined by their physical gender. But Jung, like Freud and Adler and others, tangle that we are all really bisexual in nature. When we begin our lives as fetuses, we have undifferentiated sex organs that only step by step, under the influence of hormones, become male or female.Likewise, when we begin our social lives as infants, we are neither male nor female in the social sense. Almost immediately as in brief as those pink or blue booties go on we come under the influence of society, which gradually molds us into men and women. In all societies, the expectations placed on men and women differ, usually based on our different roles in reproduction, but often involving many details that are purely traditional. In our society today, we still have many remnants of these traditional expectations.Women are still expected to be more nurturant and less aggressive men are still expected to be strong and to ignore the emotional side of life. But Jung matt-up these expectations meant that we had developed only half of our potential. The anima is the female aspect present in the collective unconscious of men, and the animus is the male aspect present in the collective unconscious of women. Together, they are referred to as syzygy. The anima may be personified as a young girl, very spontaneous and intuitive , or as a witch, or as the earth mother.It is likely to be associated with deep emotionality and the force of life itself. The animus may be personified as a wise old man, a sorcerer, or often a number of males, and tends to be logical, often rationalistic, and even argumentative. The anima or animus is the archetype through which you reach with the collective unconscious generally, and it is important to get into touch with it. It is also the archetype that is responsible for much of our love lifeWe are, as an ancient Greek myth suggests, always looking for our otherhalf, the half that the immortals took from us, in members of the opposite sex. When we fall in love at first sight, then we have found someone that fills our anima or animus archetype particularly well Other archetypes Jung said that there is no fix number of archetypes that we could simply list and memorize. They overlap and easily melt into each other as needed, and their logic is not the usual kind. But here are some he mentions Besides mother, their are other family archetypes. Obviously, there is father, who is often symbolized by a guide or an authority figure.There is also the archetype family, which represents the idea of blood relationship and ties that run deeper than those based on conscious reasons. There is also the child, represented in mythology and art by children, infants most especially, as well as other small creatures. The rescuer child celebrated at Christmas is a manifestation of the child archetype, and represents the future, becoming, rebirth, and salvation. Curiously, Christmas falls during the winter solstice, which in northerly primitive cultures also represents the future and rebirth. People used to light bonfires and perform ceremonies to encourage the suns return to them.The child archetype often blends with other archetypes to form the child-god, or the child- ace. Many archetypes are story characters. The hero is one of the main ones. He is the mana personality and the defeater of evil dragons. Basically, he represents the ego we do tend to identify with the hero of the story and is often engaged in fighting the shadow, in the form of dragons and other monsters. The hero is, however, often dumb as a post. He is, after all, ignorant of the ways of the collective unconscious. Luke Skywalker, in the steer Wars films, is the perfect example of a hero.The hero is often out to rescue the maiden. She represents purity, innocence, and, in all likelihood, naivete. In the beginning of the Star Wars story, Princess Leia is the maiden. But, as the story progresses, she becomes the anima, discovering the powers of the force the collective unconscious and becoming an equal provide with Luke, who turns out to be her brother. The wise old man guides the hero. He is a form of the animus, and reveals to the hero the nature of the collective unconscious. In Star Wars, he is played by Obi Wan Kenobi and, later, Yoda.Notice that they give lessons Luke about the force and, as Luke matures, they die and become a part of him. You might be curious as to the archetype represented by Darth Vader, the dark father. He is the shadow and the master of the dark side of the force. He also turns out to be Luke and Leias father. When he dies, he becomes one of the wise old men. There is also an animal archetype, representing humanitys relationships with the animal world. The heros faithful horse would be an example. Snakes are often symbolic of the animal archetype, and are thought to be particularly wise.Animals, after all, are more in touch with their natures than we are. Perhaps loyal little robots and reliable old spaceships the Falcon are also symbols of animal. And there is the trickster, often represented by a clown or a magician. The tricksters role is to hamper the heros progress and to generally make trouble. In Norse mythology, many of the gods adventures originate in some trick or another played on their majesties by the half-god Loki. There are other archetypes that are a little more herculean to talk about. One is the original man, represented in western religion by Adam.Another is the God archetype, representing our need to comprehend the universe, to give a meaning to all that happens, to see it all as having some purpose and direction. The hermaphrodite, both male and female, represents the union of opposites, an important idea in Jungs theory. In some religious art, Jesus is presented as a rather feminine man. Likewise, in China, the character Kuan Yin began as a male saint (the bodhisattva Avalokiteshwara), but was portrayed in such a feminine manner that he is more often thought of as the female goddess of compassionThe most important archetype of all is the self. The self is the ultimate unity of the personality and is symbolized by the circle, the cross, and the mandala figures that Jung was fond of painting. A mandala is a drawing that is used in meditation because it tends to draw your focus ba ck to the center, and it can be as simple as a geometric figure or as complicated as a stained glass window. The personifications that best represent self are Christ and Buddha, two people who many believe achieved perfection. But Jung felt that perfection of the personality is only truly achieved in death.

Friday, April 12, 2019

International Business Essay Example for Free

International Business hearWhat is e-Bays core competency? How does it relate to its chosen dodge?e-Bays competencies lie in its software, which allows wad to trade with little supervision. It also has competencies in dispute resolution, an automated item listing assistant, an online financial service and a communications platform. The integration of these allow e-Bay to have a to a greater extent efficient and effective traffic tool used and policed by the buyers and sellers in the site.What are the implications to the challenges identified in the case regarding e-Bays strategy today and the future?The challenge on translation software has the least amount of impact considering that level(p) the users of the site are content with pretty good. An improvement in this area though, would make the service more reliable. Government regulation challenges are perhaps one of the most difficult. With new laws constantly passed in countries, just about laws that touch on trade could prove a hindrance to e-Bays expansion and could restrict their operations. Un little the ground becomes more open to the flow of goods, then e-Bay would constantly face problems. The digital divide is a less serious problem.With technology catching up to many countries and becoming more available and cheaper, it is only a matter of time before the internet becomes available to poor communities. Cultural attributes is one of the most problematic. Since beliefs get so much time to shape and that reactions are unpredictable, it is important for e-Bay to be able to make their strategies localise and adapt it to the current system. Finally, international expansion is an unpredictable challenge, but could prove successful if their users continue to victuals and trust the company for their trading needs.Which candidate should the committee nominate for the assignment? Why?The first survival would be Brett Harrison because of his experience in travel rapidly line activities and super visory staff and being rated as an resplendent worker. More importantly, he has acquaintance about the country which is one of the most important things in running the operations of the company there. If he doesnt agree because of familial considerations, then, Ravi Desai should take his place, not only because of his knowledge of the country but also because he has experience in handling large operations.Should all the candidates produce the same compensation package? If not, which factors influence each package?The candidates should all receive the same formula in their compensation package a common basic salary and a bonus subordinate on their performance and contributions to the company.

Thursday, April 11, 2019

Pride Before the Fall Essay Example for Free

Pride Before the Fall EssayIt was once said by Abraham Lincoln, nearly all men can stand, but if you want to test a mans oddball give him power. This quote helped me agree with John Acton Quote, Power tends to round-backed, and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Based on the fact that there is countless amounts of stories of people corrupting, from school nouss to political leaders, power will corrupt.For my first manikin of corruption from power, is the story of a Middle School Principal. This Middle School principal was acc employ and erect guilty to embezzling from her very own school. She was found embezzling over ten thousand dollars in things from dinner bills to electronics. This principal is for me a prime example of power corrupting because just cause she was in power she headstrong to take from what she was in charge of whether it was moral or not because she was in charge of the school and was solo sentenced to four years in prison plus four years parole.Foll owing was the example, which I fantasy was the most hypercritical, of ten Atlanta police officers. These ten police officers were being accused of corruption ground on the fact that they were soliciting drugs. I thought thus to be major corruption because they only took the drugs because they were in uniforms and had supposed authority which they used for their own pleasure and benefits instead of what they were originally hired for which is the serve and protect. ultimately was the example which came to me the quickest of a French man. This Frenchmans name was Maximillen de Robespierre most commonly known for being a major leader in the French revolution. Maximillen Robespierre was followed for his leadership skills but was once almost instantly corrupt when in power. What many people dont know is that Robespierre was a reigning terrorist he used his power and his guillotine which he used in a combination to behead anyone who opposed him or his thoughts publically just to remain in power as long as he was fit to.

Tuesday, April 9, 2019

Theories of Crime Essay Example for Free

Theories of Crime EssayDue to the high rates of violent crimes in California, the recite fair play makers and the people approved in 1994 an important decision that changed the sentencing honor of criminals. Called the Three Strikes Law and Youre Out, the law aims to prolong the number of months of imprisonment for criminals who have recommitted a crime. The law was a product of humankind concerns wherein many violent offenders after their release from prison would just commit another crime.The strategic heading of the Three Strikes legislation was to make prison sentences longer and to make them mandatory when defendants with qualifying, prior criminal records were convicted of saucy offenses (Zimring, Hawkins Kamin, 2001, p. 91). With this reasoning the ability of criminals to commit further crimes would be restricted or make them discouraged and foster public safety. It is said to get rid of assume offenders and prevent potential criminals. Before the average senten cing was 21 months but it is now ex bunked to 25 months to life for three- beat offenders. In 2004, the state tried to revise the law but majority of the people of California rejected the change and the law still remains as it is today.As to the possible action of crime causation closely associated to the law, I find the psychological theory real fitting in explaining how criminals develop anti-social behavior early in childhood that continues to adulthood and become repeat offenders. This theory seeks to identify the character of a criminal how he thinks and decides. There atomic number 18 several factors that govern his criminal behavior mostly from family and individual. Psychologists cited broken homes as a leading cause of criminal behavior. In my research, I discover that children separated from their pargonnts or suffer abused are likely to offend than children whose families are intact. Broken families often become grounds for trauma where children undergo painful experi ences that have damaging make on their development.In addition, children of broken homes have no choice but to confront parental conflict, blemish of parents, poverty, and neglect that could give them emotional problems. Hans Eysencks, well-known for his studies on crime and personality, said that people who offend are those with weak conscience due to poor state of mind. Often these people are neurotic (emotionally upset), psychotic person (deranged/loss contact with reality) or extravert (assertive/thrill seeker). According to Eysenck people who are psychotic tend to do harm because their emotions are unstable, they are not compassionate, they are hostile and lack of understanding.The psychological theory clearly answers how the Three Strikes law came into existence and how it should be applied to repeat offenders. It is within this theory that I see how people develop criminal minds. People who have multiple crimes should be dealt differently and this law should remind criminal s of the consequences of their illegal actions. This law should be applied to its fullest terms and conditions so that criminals in our golf club would be prevented from harming the public. I believe that this could help lessen criminality and seclude the bad elements in our community.Giving criminals more than days in jail should make them reflect of their future and perhaps assist them in transforming their lives into expose ones. These kinds of criminals can be treated psychologically through counseling and the law can provide criminals the time for their rehabilitation. Such law could also offer better opportunities for criminals to prepare themselves in coming back to society at the same time the people in the community to accept them once again.In addition, the law could give criminals a good transition period from prison life to normal life in the community. There will be more chances for both criminals and society to patch up things and once more live together in the sam e community. For law enforcement, it is necessary to know the minds of criminals so that they would be provide with the right tools in confronting and rehabilitating future felons and repeat offenders.ReferenceZimring, F. E., Hawkins, G. Kamin, S. (2001). Punishment and Democracy Three Strikes and Youre Out in California. Oxford University Press US, New York.Law Library. (2008). Crime-Causation-Psychological-Theories. American Law and Legal Information. Retrieved March 28, 2008, from http//law.jrank.org/pages/811/Crime-Causation-Psychological-Theories-Conclusions.html

Sunday, April 7, 2019

Immanuel Kant Essay Example for Free

Immanuel Kant EssayDeontological Theory The deontological scheme declare that the consequences or outcomes of actions are not important, what actually matter is that the actions are morally justified. For example drunken impetuous is wrong, now if a person argues that he safely navigated his way back home and for that reason he/she should not be held accountable by law, they are wrong beca hire their action was wrong in the first base place and was breaking the basic principle for morally correct behaviour that a person should not drive while be drunk. The contribution of Immanuel Kant towards development of Deontological theory Immanuel Kant proposes that in taking a purpose Duty carries the fore or so importance. Kant is of the view that a persons actions allow only be regarded as morally and ethically correct when they are taken keeping in mind the sense of calling and responsibility in mind. Teleological Ethical Theory The teleological ethical theory put the basal fo cus on the Consequences i. e. What are those actions that produce the best possible results?Along with attaching importance to the consequences the teleological theory also suggests that the decisions framework that is developed for achieving the desired consequences should also be managed with care. Consequentialist Theory harmonize to the Consequentiality Theory, the nates for determining how moral a persons actions are the consequences. The consequences of actions raft be good or naughtiness, and they can be damaging or favourable. The contribution of Jeremy Bentham towards development of a persons actions can be a classified as good or bad depending on what consequences the action has produced.According to Benthams opinion the good things are classified as pleasure and the bad ones as cark.1. 2 Absolute ethics has only two sides both(prenominal)thing is good or bad, black or white. Some examples in police ethics would be unethical behaviours such as bribery, extortion, exce ssive force, and perjury, which nearly e reallyone would chequer are unacceptable behaviours by the police. Relative ethics is more complicated and can have a multitude of sides with varying shades of gray. What is bowl overed ethical behaviour by one person may be deemed highly unethical by nearlyone else.The Absolutist theory is the theory that certain things are reclaim or wrong from an objective point of view and cannot change according to culture. Certain actions are in and of itself right or wrong, which means they are right or wrong in themselves. This is also cognise as deontological. The relativist theory is the theory that in that respect are no universally valid moral principles. completely principles and set are relative to a particular culture or age. Ethical relativism means that there is no such thing as good in itself, but if and action seems good to you and bad to me, that is it, and there is no objective basis for us to discover the truth.This theory is al so known as teleological. An example of an absolutist ethical system would be if a single mother with a very young child had no money and therefore no food to feed the child, and she stole some food from the shop and the mother was caught and had a trial, an absolutist would argue that its morally wrong to steal and should beget the consequences of the crime. They dont take into account the situation the person might be in and use an absolute law. However, this is in contrast to the alternative ethical system, called relativist, because this system is really the complete opposite.Again Ill use the same example as I did for absolutist. If a relativist was looking at this they would take into favor the situation the woman might be in and empathize with her and try to find an outcome that is the most fair. One reason to support the absolutist approach as the only defensible approach is that it provides acknowledgment for acting which means that morality seems to demand some sort of obligation. If theres a fix moral code then there is no obligation to act in a way. other strength is that it gives clear guidelines, which basically means the rules are fixed and clear to apply. 1. 3 Ethics refers to a prescribed or accepted code of conduct. Ethical issues are a set of moral values that need to be addressed while carrying out worry. business sectores operate in a society that is incorporated around moral values.Therefore, when conducting its operations, a business has certain responsibilities which are to provide the society with quality goods and run that will improve the peoples living standards. In high society to survive, a business take to maintain its customers. Product packaging is one way of ensuring a business maintains its existing customers and also grasp new customers.Some companies are known to allow underweight packaging of products which are then highly priced and this is a rude way of increasing profits. However this negative trend will affe ct the business in the long run as customers will eventually come to learn that they are being swindled. In an attempt to boost sales, some businessmen adapt promotional methods that mislead customers as the communicate conveyed may not give the exact details of the product. Businesses should desist from increasing prices without valid reasons. In doing so, they will be taking advantage of the customer and this is unethical.Businessmen should also desist from taking part in corrupt practices such as selling low standard goods while bribing government officials in order to continue operating. Entrepreneurs should consider the effects of their activities on the society they serve. In the long run, wrong dealings and turpitude will tarnish the image of the business and have a negative effect on sales. Business people ought to comply with the law requirements and observe laid down principles of morality in their dealings. They should seriously consider expectations of the community th ey serve. (http//www. lawrencegmcdonald. com).

Saturday, April 6, 2019

Notes on the Ethical Theories Essay Example for Free

Notes on the Ethical Theories EssayImmanuel Kant (notice that he lived in the 1700s and flock likely had different views back whence), a philosopher, believes that victimization reason, one enkindle make a key of ethical actions. Kant says that one must generalize the certain action he is about to do to imagine if it is reasonable. For example, you ask yourself should I cut the line in the cafeteria? The way you can answer this question is by asking yourself What if everyone cut the line? Of course, if that happened then there would be chaos, so you shouldnt cut the line. This in any case applies to stealing, murdering, and keeping promises. He basically says that everyone is equal and you shouldnt justify your actions to yourself because you are not special and you wouldnt want others to do that to you. Treat others as you would have them treat you. Golden Rule. alone, if only you do this and no one else does you are going to get eaten up by the world. This may contradic t a individuals adaptability and may negatively appeal to emotion you will feel like a B-. bury of ignorance- You have two quite a little who love ginmill. Tell one person to cut a cake in half but let the other choose which half to take. Again, Golden Rule.Kant says there is a difference between objects and people, you can replace objects but not people. Someone broke my computer, I am sad. He buys me a new one, I am happy. I am about to die, my parents are sad. They can clone me, should they be happy? He also says that you shouldnt kill people for the greater good. But what if they were murderers or rapists arent they causing sadness, and their deaths would in fact be for the greater good?Kant sees that a persons intentions that numerate rather than the final result. But what if I am helping a person, who is bad and corrupt, against a despoiler who is only trying to feed his family, quite the dilemma. Kant uses only reasoning rather than emotion so that people always do what is right rather than when they feel like it. Consistency is key to his theories.Criticisms of KantMoral monocracy You cant always not lie. What if a murderer wants to kill your dad? Your dad hides and then the murder breaks in and asks you were he is. If you fare Kants ideas, you would tell him where your dad is. There must be some sort of emotion to counteract those who do not follow the philosophy of Kant. But again, Kant is formulation that EVERYONE should do this, and this murderer wouldnt exist in Kants ideal world.Rule worship- To blindly follow rules without using your own knowledge. If rules can not be bent, then they should be broken. Conflicts of duty- should you steal the medicine for your expiry wife? Should you come through your grandmother from the burning house or the doctor who can save many another(prenominal) people?Moral coldness- The world would be emotionless and sad. There will be little lacuna for happiness because everything is going to be so constant and emotions will have a very elegant presence.Utilitarianism- Seek the greatest happiness for the greatest number.What if you could randomly pick 10 people to die and save 100? Would you do it?You can say yes, because it logical, you use no emotion what so ever. That goes against Kant though because he says that people have dignity and you shouldnt take that away.You can say no, where you are mostly using emotion.

Friday, April 5, 2019

Persuasion Techniques In Advertisement Media Media Essay

Persuasion Techniques In Advertisement Media Media EssayIntroductionThe main subject of this paper is to discuss the topic of legal opinion in the media through the usage of several examples to explain somewhat of the techniques purposed to perform this function. Persuasion is one of the many varied casefuls of communication that exist, and the best way to lay out to define the glib-tongued communication is primarily giving a definition of what communication is. A quite a widespread definition most what communication is would be to say that communication is the action or bring where there is an exchange of information of any kind between two or more individuals. Also, it is authoritative to understand that this plow is dynamic, transactional, it affects both the sender of the message, and who listen to it and receive it. Persuasive communication is outside our consciousness, since it influences us and manipulates more than what we usually realize. We often hear about the power of specific communicators. We also know that those who govern information be real powerful. When we talk about the power public speaking, we atomic number 18 only recognizing what experts gravel knget for years, we recognize that communication that influences new(prenominal)s is a powerful weapon.The main problem is that the persuasive communication is a tool that can be usage for good or bad purposes, to change behaviors, except in one way or another it is important to recognize that it is a powerful tool. For this reason, although the communication fulfils different functions, the purpose is this paper is to show how in the media through the marketing advertisements, we can also use persuasion as a tool to post the reference into buying a harvest. refinement Likelihood model (ELM) Slim FastIn this ad for Slim Fast, the target earreach is middle class females who ar in a stage of their lives in which they have a favored life. Women atomic number 18 very awa rgon(predicate) of their weight usually more than men do. Also inside their main listening target, the ad appeals nonage females in their 30 and older since this is the time when nigh start to achieve success climbing the vexationer ladder and at the kindred time most already have family making it more arduous to take c be of their bodies since time is now limited and there is no much room for exercise. The ready and easy answer is Slim Fast. Therefore, the ad shows that a woman in her 30s can have a healthy and thin body because she uses the Slim Fast return. Even the name is persuasive, Slim-Fast, this implies not much work, for hatful in a hurry to lose weight.In the ad they utilise as spokesperson a celebrity, a person women could identify with and the before and after images are always very effective to persuade earshot this is a trusted product. This audience is all about success, and to represent a person who is be palmy in life, we must be thin. Not existence able to take good care of your body, especially for women in the professional work environment could be seen as a failure. The ad utilizes strategies from the Elaboration Likelihood Model(ELM) to persuade its audience. First the ad uses visual elements to motivate the usage of mental processes to motivate audience to accept the persuasive message. The ad makes good use of the analysis results to understand the audience in society to come up with the ad strategy. In the ELM model the ad used the peripheral alley by the celebrity endorsement since it is a way to connect the audience with the product since it abets the receiver have in mind about something that the person is familiar with(after all weight lost, is a Fact of Life-TV show where the celebrity beingness used in this ad became popular back in the early 80s, period when the target audience where in their late teens) and to rely on audience lack of capability to achieve the goal to lop weight. Lastly self- honor is effec tively appealed by this same route since by gaining audience emotional affair to demonstrate if the actress selected was able to do it, the audience can do it too.Social Judgment speculationIn this advertisement for Mercedes-Benz, the target audience is upper middle class individuals who are coming up in the professional ladder. Young executives like to demonstrate in the way they dress, what they eat, and more important what they drive, that they are successful sight. For most people cars make a social status statement, and what better statement to show everybody how successful we are, by getting a Mercedes-Benz. The biggest challenge for many people in getting such a prestigious car is the cost, and in the ad, they already give the solution raise expectations, but not the payments. The persuasive message is why settling for less if now you can get a Mercedes-Benz for an affordable price. This ad uses subliminal persuasion since in the picture the car is driving up, or heading up. In other words, once again, we see the message about moving up the professional ladder. In addition in the picture the cars wheels are in motion, another subliminal message of the always moving and fast-paced on how people sample individuals who are working towards achieving their goals. It is interesting to see in the picture the lack of tint to give the impression of a classical and somewhat elegant item.This advertisement utilizes strategies from the Social Judgment scheme to persuade its audience. My interpretation of the use of this theory in the ad, is that when people receive the nonverbal message, they immediately judge the ad message based on how they view and measure being successful, and to be able to own this car, impart give them the prestige they view as representation of the success they are experiencing in their individualized and professional lives. The message was crafted keeping in mind an audience who has a high ego-involvement based on their values and views of how they measure success and this enable a high level of acceptance/agreement with the message. Professionals in their social networks and affiliations usually will agree with the majority opinion more often than not, and in this type of groups most of them own or wish they could own a Mercedes-Benz. This is a result of high ego-involvement, or taking on the groups views/judgments as ones own.Subliminal Co-Creation TheoriesIn this outline ad, the target audience is women-young adults in their 20s 30s who are not afraid to express themselves. They want to look sexy, they want to feel sexy for the opposite sex, and they are looking for company and what better than victimization a red lipstick. Young adults are always looking for action, are not afraid of risks, and in this ad we see two nice looking adults who are not afraid to demonstrate to each other how they are feeling and what they want.The persuasive approach is very graphic and it is used by having beautiful wome n with white complexion to highlight the redness of her bold, shiny lips. The use of sex appeal, and color, is part of the persuasion process to convince audience it is ok to be beautiful and this lipstick will give them the lips theyve always wanted and it would drive men crazy. The subliminal approach continues with the way she is using the lipstick (girls mouth open while using the lipstick) and the man kissing her, suggesting that she feels sexy wearing the lipstick and it could lead for more than just a kiss. The Co-creation process is clearly used in this ad since it leads audience to co-create what is going on or what is about to happen with the couple in the picture. Once again this is a very effective approach to appeal to the main audience this ad is targeting since they are in their aboriginal age and are interested to attract the opposite sex. The picture is not complete since we cannot see where they are, are they dressed or not dressed? or what their eyes look like, g iving audience the probability to imagine different scenarios where the action is taking place her apartment, his house, or at a club. The co-creation process is used by omitting information in the picture which helps audience co-create their own unique scenario with the expectation that this will help persuade potential buyers to get the product since once we co-create a unique scenario it can have a more effective appeal to me as an individual.Compliance Gaining Theory Kama Sutra CondomsIn this ad for Kama Sutra condoms, the target audience is adults in their 20s to 30s who are self-confidents and are very clear of what they want and are not afraid to fill for it. Men self esteem many times is measured by the capability to satisfy women, and the ad provides an answer to this dilemma. This ad persuades men with the message that they not just will have sex but they will be able to enjoy it more because they would achieve to experience it for much longer by using this condom. In the other hand Women are also persuaded with this ad, since the message is that not only they will have safe-sex by getting protection, but it will not limit their capability to be satisfied. The picture shows a good-looking people which also appeals to audience by sending this message that good-looking people know how to have fun. I believe sexually explicit pictures attract attention, are interesting and engaging, and betoken processing resources toward the sexual stimulus and this lead to a positive attitude towards the product.This advertisement utilizes strategies from the Compliance Gaining Theory to persuade its audience. The persuasive message is very interpersonal by clearly establishing the promise that the people who use this product are rewarded. The product clearly sends this message by writing in big earn right in the front package long last. There are different elements of this theory used in this ad, since also I can see the debt factor playing in the persuasive me ssage, since most men feel like they owe women the pleasure of sex. In addition, self-feeling is very evident since using this product will make both feel very good by having a long and fulfilling time. The esteem element is also played in the ad since the ad establishes that by using it, the partners will be satisfied. In summary both female and male audience will be positively influenced by this ad by appealing to their self-gratification.CONCLUSIONWe can see how in the media and in particular advertising, the process of persuasion is critical in order to achieve success through the process to convince the audience to acquire certain products, either goods or services. To achieve persuasion, advertising media uses different methods and strategies to present a product or service as something necessary for the consumer.We are surrounded by advertising everywhere. Posters in the subway, habit brands, advertisements on television, making us feel we are constantly being targeted by pe rsuasion messages which are impossible to get rid of it. Advertising is executed by people and, therefore, is subject to the same virtues and their same defects but, what is very important is to acknowledge that it is a powerful communication tool. For that reason, it is important to learn more about the different persuasion strategies that are used in the media in order to determine when we are being targeted to get something that really we do not need or convince us to change our principles.

Are Offender Profiles Useful in Police Investigations?

Are wrongdoer Profiles Useful in fairness Investigations?In recent years, there atomic number 18 more and more people save be interject more and more fascinated by wrongdoer indite because of the influence of media. An example of this is the well-known shepherds crook compose pip The Silence of the Lambs, which is based on the Thomas Harris novel of the alike(p) name. Some television certifys much(prenominal) as Millennium, Profiler and The X-Files are in like manner based around the premise of criminal write. However, Hicks and Sales (2006) emphasize that these portrayals encourage the becharm of pen as an art rather than a science though these penrs contain academic backgrounds and law enforcement engender. The prevalence of wrongdoer profile has grown over the past three decades (Snook, Eastwood, Gendreau, Goggin and Cullen, 2007), although studies declare oneself that indites have been base to be most effective as an additional tool, non as a solution to peculiar(prenominal) law-breakings (Wilson, Lincon and Kocsis, 19972). Using offender profiling would appear to be more beneficial than relying solely on traditional methods of detection (Ainsworth, 2001). In addition, it is important for practice of law detectives to know which crimes are connected in frame to collate and equation the entropy surrounded by these related casefuls (Egger, 1984 as cited in Rossmo, 2000). This essay sieveament discuss the vestigial assurances of both offender profiling and case linkage, and then argue the usefulness of these practices in criminal investigations.Offender profiling has been defined by contrasting authors using different terminologies such as specific profile analysis, psychological profiling, criminal profiling and criminal personality profiling. However, the underlying concept of definitions ashes the same (Jackson and Bekerian, 1997). Beau date, Lussier and Proulx (2005) area that offender profiling fork outs roug hly descriptive entropy roughly demeanors and personality of an offender by analysing crime icon characteristics, which dejection narrow odds and fin whollyy solve the cases. Muller (2000) describes the culture which the criminal profiler uses is often interpreted from the dead reckoning of crime, and profilers will take into account virtually factors such as previous crime scene, weapons, behaviours and haggling to the victim and the geographic patterns of crime. Davies (1992 as cited in Beauregard et al., 2005) emphasizes that offender profiling is an inquiring tool which focus on the analysis of offenders behaviour and accordingly infers some of the criminals personal characteristics.In Europe, offender profiling is defined as attempting to produce a description of the perpetrator(s) of a criminal discourtesy on the basis of analysis of characteristics of the happening and other background information (St take downs, 1995 10), and this definition is adopted by the As sociation of Chief Police Officers behavioral Science Investigative Support Sub-committee in UK (Ainsworth, 2000). Although the actual go of profiling differs from one profiler to a nonher, the aim remains the same to deduce the behaviour, personality, and physical characteristics of the offender (Muller, 2000). According to Holmes and Holmes (1996), profiling has the following three main goals assessing the offender from social and psychological aspects, the evaluating suspected offenders relevant possessions, and consulting with law enforcement officials about some strategies when interviewing offenders. The process of constructing a profile of an unknown offender typically includes three stages (Snook et al., 2007). Firstly, collecting crime scene data by police officers is needed and then the data will be forwarded to a profiler secondly, the profiler starts to disassemble the data which stems from the crime scene and the last step is the predictions about the personality, b ehaviours, and demographic characteristics of the likely criminal (Snook et al., 2007). Snook et al. (2007) also describe that the processes of analyzing crime scene data tramp be classified two types clinical and statistical in nature. Clinically orientated techniques are based on the profilers intuition, knowledge, experience, and training, in order to generate predictions. Comparing these with statistically oriented techniques, the last mentioned predictions are based on descriptive and inferential statistical models which derive from the result of analysing offenders characteristics who have connected correspondent crimes previously (Snook et al., 2007).It would seem that profiling can offer more spotless results in some kinds of offence (Stevens, 1995). Hazelwood and Burgess (1995) claim that some consequent bilks, murders, arson, child abusing are extraordinarily let for profiling. Ainsworth (2000) suggests that murder and some serious sexual offences are the most com mon crimes for using offender profiling. In addition, Ainsworth (2001) comments that such serious, personal contact crimes involve attacks on strangers are the most operose cases to solve for the police. Wilson et al. (1997) also point out that profiling is most useful in accompanying offences, because profilers can extrapolate and compare data from the various crime scenes. However, the FBI circumscribes the point that property crimes and robberies probably are non suitable for profiling because sometimes these offences cannot reflect the personality of offenders (Ainsworth, 2000).Police forces are always required to focus their investigatory efforts to rank crimes which committed by the same offender, because the majority of the crimes come from the minority of offenders (Woodhams and Toye, 2007). Woodhams and Toye (2007) believe that case linkage can be utilize to examine the likelihood of a series of offences being committed by the same unidentified offender when lacking suitable physical present, such as DNA evidence. Crime analysts analyze crime scene actions to consider whether there are some standardizedities in behaviours which committed by a common offender (Woodhams and Toye, 2007). In addition, Holmes and Holmes (2002) suggest that linkage analysis can identify connections between similar crimes committed by different offenders.Alison, Bennell, Mokros and Ormerod (2002) state that offender profiling rests on two key assumptions in order to make profiling be possible. The first one is the behavioural consistency assumption, which means if serial offenders commit similar offences, they must exhibit behavioural consistency. According to Alison et al. (2002), the transmutation in behaviour an offender shows must be less than the variation in behaviour by different offenders. The second assumption relies on what Mokros and Alison (2002) have termed the homology assumption, which requires that similar offence behaviour of two offenders will mat ch similar characteristics (Goodwill and Alison, 2007). In addition, the process of case linkage also rests on two key assumptions. The first one is the offender consistency hypothesis, the same with the first assumption of profiling. The second assumption of case linkage is that there is variation in the way different criminals commit crimes (Woodhams, Bull and Hollin, 2007). Thus, for it to be possible to link crimes which committed by the same offender, criminals must behave in a stable but distinctive manner (Woodhams et al., 2007).In terms of the behavioural consistency assumption, it has been hypothesized that each person has a cognitive-affective personality system which would affect the behaviour produced in a given situation (Mischel and Shoda, 1995 as cited in Woodhams and Toye, 2007). This theory implies that when people encounter situations which have a similar psychological meaning to them, they will produce similar behaviour (Woodhams and Toye, 2007). Salfati and Batem an (2005) studied 94 variables relating to serial homicide offences which were obtained from police case files of the Homicide Investigation and Tracking System (HITS) database in Seattle, Washington of USA. They state that serial homicidal offenders are accordant across the series of homicides in their crime scene behaviours. Bennell and canter (2002) analyse 86 solved commercial burglaries committed by 43 offenders, they demonstrated that commercial burglary offenders are consistent in their burglary behaviours. Moreover, Santtila, Junkkila and Sandnabba (2005) studied 43 serial stranger rape cases which occurred in Finland during the years 1983-2001, they confirm that rape has a consistent thematic structure (Santtila et al. 2005 102) instead of being a haphazard collection of behaviours.Whether offenders show more consistency in some criminal behaviour than in others also has real big(p) scrutiny. Researchers group the specific offender behaviours into domains, comparison with others in order to investigate whether offenders show greater behavioural consistency across their series of crimes (Woodhams and Toye, 2007). Grubin, Kelly and Brunsdon (2001) imply that behaviours at bottom the domains of control and escape are less mutually beneficial on the situation and the victims behaviour, thus, the control and escape behavioural domains show greater behavioural consistency comparing with the sex and style behavioural domains. Besides that, Bennell and Canter (2002) found that target selection and entry behaviours showed comparatively consistent comparing with property stolen by studying the sample of commercial burglaries. However, Goodwill and Alison (2007) stress that the situational determinants of an offence can cause enormous variation in the way of committing the offence. In addition, Goodwill and Alison (2007) also implement the point that the behavioural inferences made about an offender across a crime series are specially vulnerable to vio lating (Goodwill and Alison, 2007 824) the consistency condition. Similarly, Snook, Cullen, Bennell, Taylor and Gendreau (2008) emphasize that offender profiling approaches are based on the lacking empirical support typologies and are often based on an outdated understanding of human behaviour.In terms of the homology assumption, perhaps the empirical evidence to support this assumption is a little loose. Mokros and Alison (2002) studied the cases about the number of 100 British male stranger rapists which had some similarities in the crime scene actions. They well-tried whether increased similarity in offence behaviour coincided with higher resemblance in characteristics and previous convictions. The characteristics they examined including age, ethnicity, employment, education, matrimonial status, and criminal record. They concluded that in their study, there was no evidence could prove the assumption of homology according to the relationships between crime scene and rapists cha racteristics. Hkknen, Puolakka and Santtila (2004) analysed the number of 189 arsons in Finland from 1990 to 2001 by using non-metric multi-dimensional scaling procedure. In order to find the associations between crime scene actions and criminal characteristics, they divided the crime scene actions into four types expressive-object, instru psychological-object, expressive-person and instrumental-person. In terms of criminal characteristics, they also divided into four types adolescent, self-destructive arsonist, serial arsonist and criminal. As a result, they found that offenders who committed different types of arsons with some similar characteristics. Obviously, their study failed to offer punishing empirical evidence to support the homology assumption. Similarly, Doan and Snook (2008) examined the number of 87 arsons and 177 robberies, and compared the different types and the various criminal characteristics. They stressed that the evidence is low to tick to support the homolog y assumption. Furthermore, Goodwill and Alison (2007) declare that the homology assumption may be in effect in some cases but not others. Furthermore, they argue that the homology assumption may be dependent on the extent to the behaviours which influenced by situational, psychological or interpersonal factors.In terms of the second assumption of case linkage, some studies have investigated that crimes committed by the same offender can be differentiated from crimes by different criminals. Bennell and Canter (2002) studied 86 solved commercial burglaries, they found that 43 offenders had distinct behavioural features. Bennell and Jones (2005) report that various linking features exist in different burglaries, and this explore also supports the assumption of inter-offender behavioural variation. However, the above studies indicate that the process of case linkage is not perfect and the linkage trueness appears to vary with crime types (Woodhams et al., 2007). In contrast, Woodhams a nd Toye (2007) utilize government notes of predictive trueness which called areas under the curve (AUCs), and they found that there was high predictive verity in their study of burglary.It lists to be the case that both the findings of offender profiling and case linkage will be greatly useful for firmness of purpose the offences in criminal investigations. Offender profiling can inform the prioritization of suspects possessing qualify characteristics (Oldfield, 1997 as cited in Woodhams and Toye, 2007 60), and case linkage can combine police investigative efforts and information from different crime scenes (Grubin, Kelly and Brunsdon, 2001). Besides that, profiles can also be used in providing interviewing skills or approaches for detectives to the potential suspect (Gudjonsson, 1992), and it is important for the trial process, because profiles can allow useful suggestions for prosecutors by assessing the accused, witnesses and juries (Wilson et al., 1997). Furthermore, Holm es and Holmes (2002) stress that linkage analysis systems not only can locate possible suspects from records of similar past offenses, but also can stick out maximum information for psychological and geographic profiling efforts through confirming similar crimes.In malice of the usefulness of profiling and case linkage, Ainsworth (2000) is worried about that people may be over-optimistic for profiling because it has attracted such widespread public interest. Wilson and Soothill (1996) hold the point that a profile will rarely solve a crime or catch a criminal by itself, but it is designed to be an caution to the investigating police. Profiling experts also state openly that offender profiles are merely another investigative aid, they have never meant to lead exclusively to the apprehension of offenders (Ressler and Schactman, 1992 as cited in Wilson et al., 1997 8). Furthermore, Jackson and Bekerian (1997) stress that offender profiles do not solve crimes and the answers they are offered are not solutions, accordingly, profiling should be viewed as a tool which can be extremely helpful in offering some strategies, supporting information management, and improving case understanding. Similarly, Gerberth (1995 as cited in Holmes and Holmes, 2002 14) asserted that Criminal profiling is an excellent law enforcement tool. However, it is besides one of more tools and does not replace good investigative techniques.Although psychologists have offered very detailed and accurate profiles in a number of famous cases (Canter, 1994), profiles do not always have dramatic and productive results (Ainsworth, 2000). To date, there have been few accurate and systematic tests to examine the exact usefulness of profiling even though some profiles have been proved to be accurate and have led to the conviction of offenders (Ainsworth, 2000). Studies suggest that although criminal profiling is being utilized by police agencies around the world, there is no strong evidence can sh ow that the profiling is reliable, valid, or useful (Snook et al., 2007). Accordingly, many researchers are reluctant to let in criminal profiling is reliable and valuable. For example, Godwin (1978 as cited in Holmes and Holmes, 2002) asserts that profiling has little effect in solving crimes, and he even describes profiles themselves are dull and tedious. Similarly, Levin and Fox claim that profiles are of little use in identifying the murderers, unfortunately, this tool, no matter how expertly implemented, is inherently limited in its ability to help solve crimes (Levin and Fox, 1985 as cited in Holmes and Holmes, 2002 275). Snook et al. (2007) conducted a narrative review and analysed the published literature, they concluded that the criminal profiling relied on weak standards of proof and profilers were not better than other groups in predicting the characteristics of an unknown criminal, they even declared that the profiling was outside and redundant in investigations. Simil arly, Snook et al. (2008) argue that criminal profiling has the potential to mislead criminal investigators, hinder the apprehension of guilty criminals and lead to wrongful convictions.It would seem that profilers can provide more accurate profiles than nonprofilers even though some of the above researchers are reluctant to see profiling as a useful tool. Pinizzotto and Finkel (1990) examined profiles which conducted by professional profilers, detectives, psychologists, and students for a series of cases. Their study found that the profiles offered by the profilers were more accurate than by all of the other groups in most cases. In the sex offender case, the profilers significantly offered more accurate items such as the gender, age, and education of the offender. In addition, their study also shows that profilers can offer richer and more detailed reports (Pinizzotto and Finkel, 1990). However, with regard to the homicide case, the detectives were significantly more accurate than the profilers in the items such as the offenders employment and residence. Kocsis and his research team compared the accuracy of professional profilers, psychologists, self-identified psychics, college students, and various groups of law enforcement officers. They found that the profilers provided the actual offenders in the largest number of correct predictions (Kocsis, 2003), with the accuracy order ranging from 46 per cent to 70 per cent (Kocsis and Middledrop, 2004). However, there was a notable amount of variability within the profiler group, Kocsis and Middledrop (2004) observed that some profilers were much more accurate than others, even though the cause of the variation was tacit unclear, whether it was due to overall differences in the profilers skills or to specific aspects of the cases.The popularity of profiling is often seen as a measure of its success (Wilson et al., 1997). Copson (1995) shows that in UK, 29 profilers have been responsible for providing 242 instanc es of profiling advice between 1981 and 1994. However, Snook et al. (2008) claim that profilers always amplify the number of correct predictions rather than the proportion of correct predictions. Although there have been very few pieces of research which have tested both the accuracy and usefulness of profiles in live criminal cases, Copsons study Coals to Newcastle? disassemble 1 a study of offender profiling is one of the few studies (Ainsworth, 2001). Copsons (1995) study demonstrates that 82.6% of respondents reported that the advice they received had been useful, though only 14.1% of officers reported the profiling advice had assisted in solving the case and only 16.3% of respondents reported that the profiling advice had opened new lines of enquiry. Besides that, there are more than 50 per cent of respondents verbalise that the advice had offered new information for the case.In Copsons (1995) study, 126 officers (68.5%) reported that they would seek profiling advice again d efinitely in similar circumstances, though less than 50 per cent officers reported that they would definitely use the same profiler again in the similar situation. In addition, Pinizzotto (1984 as cited in Wilson et al., 1997) found that from 192 requests for profiles, actually only 17 per cent were used to help identify the suspects, however, 77 per cent of the respondents reported that the profiles had helped to focus on the investigation. Furthermore, in the earlier survey, Douglas (as cited in Snook et al., 2008) demonstrated that in USA, 46 per cent solved cases of the 192 instances were attributed to the offender profiling which provided by the FBI. Similarly, Jackson, van Koppen, and Herbrink (1993 as cited in Snook et al., 2008) showed that in Netherlands, five sixths of surveyed police officers reported some degree of usefulness about the profiling advice which provided by an FBI trained profiler. Another research shows that in USA, a significant portion of police officers hold the point that offender profiling has its value (Trager and Brewster, 2001 as cited in Snook et al., 2008). Similarly, Torres, Boccaccini and Miller (2006) surveyed forensic psychologists and psychiatrists through the lucre in order to examine their experiences and opinions about profiling. They found that approximately 40 per cent of these professionals feel the criminal investigative analysis is scientifically reliable or valid, and 86 per cent believe that offender profiling is a useful law enforcement tool (Torres et al., 2006).Ainsworth (2000) points out that many senior detectives do not avow the usefulness of offender profiling which provided by profilers. Copson (1995) explains that the negative views taken by senior detectives may come from the misunderstanding of profiling. Copson and Holloway (1997 as cited in Ainsworth, 2000) show that profiling helped to solve only 16 per cent of the crimes in which it was used, and identified the offender in less than 3 per cent of cases. In contrast, Ainsworth (2001) emphasizes that we should look into these figures in a little more detail because normally profiling would only be considered when the case was too difficult to be solved. Another reason is that organizations such as the FBI are reluctant to offer the figures about the successes and failures of the profiles they provide (Muller, 2000). Brittons implication that a large amount of cases have been solved by routine police work, not by offender profiling (Britton, 1997 as cited in Ainsworth, 2000). However, Canter argues that profiling has advantages in terms of the resources especially for some particular crimes comparing with that the police throw more and more resources at the crime hoping that something will turn up (Canter, 1994 21). When evaluating the usefulness of profiling, it is necessary to take into account if the profile is seen in isolation or merely as one part of more general guidance which a psychologist might provide to investig ators (Ainsworth, 2000119). Muller (2000) also emphasizes that although some profiles may lead the wrong directions to the investigation, this may only be a problem if the police place a greater amount of faith in the profile than they do in their own investigative skills (Muller, 2000 259).Another problem should be concerned is that when evaluating the accuracy of a profile, police officers are excessively subjective (Kocsis, 2003). Smith and Alison (2001 as cited in Kocsis, 2003) found that police officers were unable to observe the difference in the amount of accurate information in two profiles, and they tended to interpret ambiguous statements by their own subjective intentions. Kocsis and Hayes investigated the perceptions of police officers concerning the utility and accuracy of the profile, also found that perception of the accuracy of a profile is quite likely to be associated with the readers perception regarding the identity of its author (Kocsis and Hayes, 2003 as cited in Kocsis, 2003 129). Kocsis and Middledorp (2004) examined a sample of 353 participants in order to explore Kocsis and Hellers findings that the relationship between ones belief of a profile and the comprehend accuracy of that profile. Kocsis and Middledorp (2004) found that there is a positive relationship between belief and perceived accuracy. They point out that the extent accuracy which participants perceive depending on their beliefs in profiling. Ainsworth (2001) also suggests that the dangers of the self-fulfilling prophecy should be concerned because police officers have the cognizant sense that any psychological profile may fit in some individuals, which leads to the inaccuracy. Psychologists will tend to be focus on the probabilities of offence in contrast, the police officers tend to operate in terms of guilt or innocence (Ainsworth, 2001).It would seem that it is difficult to assess the accuracy and the value of profiles. One important issue should be considered is t hat whether profiling can bring new information to an enquiry or whether the profiling can confirm those cases which the police already suspected (Ainsworth, 2001). Ainsworth (2001) implies that in many cases, it is difficult to discern the new material because there may be an overlap between the information which the profiler offers and that which has already been collected by the police. In some cases, although the profilers advice may not be seem as the new information, profilers input may help police prioritize the information which they are considering (Ainsworth, 2001). Moreover, the value of profiling may depend on different cases. For example, profilers can offer deeper insights of some more serious forms of mental illness and some sexual assault cases than non-experts and some police who have little previous experience about those cases (Ainsworth, 2001).In conclusion, the future of psychological profiling and case linkage appear promising, research seems to be supporting t he underling assumptions of these practices even though there have been few systematic and accurate studies to test the exact usefulness of offender profiling and case linkage. In terms of the homology assumption, the empirical evidence is especially weak to support it. Profiling as an additional tool plays an important role in criminal investigations, especially in serial offences. Studies suggest that profilers can provide more accurate profiles than nonprofilers. Case linkage provides a good way to collate and compare the information between related cases, thus, investigative efforts can be combined and officers can avoid the repetition of investigations. Most police officers would seek profiling advice and case linkage because of the agreement of their usefulness. However, over-optimistic vision of profiling and case linkage should be concerned because they do not always have dramatic and successful results even though many solved cases were attributed to offender profiling and case linkage. Finally, profiling and case linkage are useful tools and cannot replace the other good investigative techniques.