Sunday, March 31, 2019

Examining The Psychological Offender Profiling Investigation Criminology Essay

Examining The Psychological wrongdoer pen Investigation Criminology Essayoffender write is an investigative rooster that is apply by psychologists to bene detailor them operate on out exactly why a peculiar(a) umbrage has been commit and why a felon is behaving in a current way. This puppet is exercised to research the types of villainys people argon committing and how an offender picks his or her dupe. This orderliness of research excessively helps the Criminal legal expert System at a signifi keistert degree. It enables them to make a decision based upon the research and facts, which makes the boilers suit verdict more(prenominal) ethical.The aim of wrongdoer Profiling is to go beyond the facts and develop a hypothesis about the offender.Holmes Holmes (1996) suggests three objectives to meet this aim. These atomic number 18 to 1) to leave the law with basic data about the certain personality attri alonees of the offender such as age, family, ethnicity, employment and marital status, 2) to suggest some(a)(prenominal) belongs the offender whitethorn occupy that would lead him to committing this offensive and 3) to provide interviewing strategies and suggestions the practice of law may use when questioning a suspect. The British get on Offender Profiling is actually different to the American onset. The British approach does not categorise crimes and try to oppose them into theories but takes a more scientific approach to analysing e genuinely possible data of a crime and using these to develop the profile, whereas the American approach (FBI) to developing an offender profile is different to this. Their approach has been substantial from an initial sample of interviews with 36 convicted serial versed murderers, together with detai take information from crime scenes i.e. the mending and timing of the crimes, medical examination cut acrosss, both crimes that do already been perpetrate in the neighbourhood, the victims whereabouts and the amount of rhetorical awargonness shown by the offender.1This is done in order to help them establish a bigger picture of the crime and help them identify the psychology basis it.Offender Profiling was initial used in the Second World warf be to see if thither were any weaknesses that can be exploited and enhanced for the future. For example, Langer conducted a profile on Hitler and concluded that if he had lost the Second World War he would commit suicide. He was correct. After the defeat in 1945, Adolf Hitler affiliated suicide and passed away.Psychiatrists believe that the basic assumption of Offender Profiling is that the offenders attain a certain fingerprint, in other words, certain behavior at the crime scene which is a reflection of their personality and characteristics. For example, a poisonous tying up the victim the psychological fingerprint behind this would be that the offender wants control and dominance over the offender in order to defeat them. Another example can be shown from a coddle case. When an offender has perpetrate rape they would wash the victim. The psychological fingerprint behind this would be that the savage either lookings some sort of remorse so he/she wants cleanse or that they want the case to be so inconspicuous that they even remove the victims pubic hair.How Offender Profiling influencedmotor hotelThe courtroom is very important in the British Criminal justness System. There argon two types of profile techniques that are used in trials. The first is what we call deductive Offender Profiling, which concerns itself with the particular behavioural distinguish of a case. Second is inductive profiling which assumes that when a nefarious commits a crime, he or she will have a similar primer and motive to others who have committed a similar crime. There are related problems of the use of Offender Profiling in the courtroom. The first is un bashing about the nature of Offender Profiling and phy sical turn up. The second is when the profilers are too zeal. When these two problems cross in a single case, it may be that an offender profiler gives opinions with strong confidence about circumstances and behaviours that are assumed and not established.2InterviewingOffender Profiling can help the CJS and the police in terms of suggesting effective ways of interviewing, related to specific criminal types. Not all will react to questioning in the resembling manner. An effective way of questioning for one person may be ineffective for person else. This is because not all murderers commit murder for the aforesaid(prenominal) reason. This means depending on their reasons for committing a crime, they would need different strategies of questioning. An example can be shown by the murder of a unsalted girl and her mate in which the stepfather was the main suspect but at that place was no rhetorical render to convict him. When he was questioned in the usual way, he denied any invo lvement. The profiler suggested that as he was a man who had a great obligatory for control, it would be good to ask for his help in solving the crime. pretending to be doing this, the suspect was given lots of photographs of the crime scene and thought process he was in control of the investigation, became so occupied in public lecture about the case that he revealed more and more his knowledge with the crime until he lastly gave up and confessed.3VictimsOffender Profiling certainly impacts victims in various ways. The most evident is that it helps police suffer their offender. The victim may be traumatised as a result of the offence and may feel threatened that the perpetrator will return in that respectfore being terrified to leave their home. If the offender is convicted, the victim will be relieved and at least try and continue with their normal life.Mental healthRessler (1992) says that mental health professionals have an interest in offender profiling and have also he lped research in the study of criminal psychology. Thus, it is suggested that clinicians could be used to help the Criminal Justice System in suggesting ways of profiling and ways of treatment.PoliceProfiling can give the police a new or different direction in their attempt to thingmabob the offender by reducing the sway of suspects. This is by giving them information about the choice of victim, the location, anything that was said by the offender and the nature of the offense. These things may help to give the offender more of a personality, and thus help the police in their chase of the offender. Profiling is not aimed to tell the police who actually committed an offence instead it aims to suggest to them some personality and demographic characteristics that the offender is in all prob cogency to possess. If for example the police are analyze a number of rapes in the very(prenominal) area, they will be cheerful to identify whether the same person has committed them. They wil l need to know if they should be looking for one or several offenders. In addition, a profile can help police in reducing their list of suspects and to avoid wasting time on enquiries which are apparent to be useless. If a suspect of the police does not snatch any of the profilers predictions so the police might spend less time following that particular person. In some case the profile may well pass away someone whom the police already suspect and will and then exit the police policemans to concentrate their investigations on the most likely suspect.How Offender Profiling was used in reliable life casesDuring the period 1982-86, 24 cozy assaults occurred in North London near to railways. It was believed that one man committed all these crimes, though on some occasions he had someone that helped him out. Between 1985 and 1986 three murders occurred, and forensic recount together with certain aspects of the attackers suggested that there were links amidst the rapes and murde rs. In 1986, police forces in South England were seek to disclose the Railway Rapist, which then saturnine in to the Railway Killer. Dr. David ride horseback, a psychologist and criminologist was invited to compose British crimes first offender profile. When the offender, John Duffy, was later arrested and convicted, it turned out that 13 of Canters 17 announcements about the offender were correct.The case of Adrian Babb is some other instance where Offender Profiling has been successful and therefrom very implemental to the CJS. Between 1986 and 1988, seven attacks on elderly women took place in pillar blocks in south Birmingham. Women recovered 70-80 were followed into the lifts by a stocky young man who overwhelmed them and took them to the top floor of the tower block, where he raped them and escaped. The same patterns of the crimes suggested that the offense was committed by the same man. Because the criminal had a trammel range of locations, victims and actions, this suggested that the offender was operating a limited world, wherein he was forced in his actions. Victims reported the offender as black, athletic, without body scent and carrying a sports bag. He had no attempt to hide himself, thus he had no fear of being recognised and convicted.Canter labelled his approach investigatory Psychology, where he believes that offender goes beyond what he originally thought of Offender Profiling and covers a branch of applied psychology. Canter has a certain strategy that he uses within this investigation which helps him in finding the offender. He firstly tries to understand the types of crime individuals are likely to become affect in and the way the crime will be carried out. After that he tries to understand the way a criminal behaviour processes and how the crime mirrors their behaviour in their daily life. These led him to believe that there are associated activities that pass off when a crime is being committed. He also believes that actions of offenders at the crime scene are likely to reveal something about their background.The important attributes Canter looks out for within his research are location, biography, social and personal characteristics and occupational/ educational memoir. One other aspect of profiling is the methodological charm of data and statistical analysis. An example of this is when Canter and Heritage (1990) combed by the victim statements of 66 UK sexual assaults and with the use of statistics, they were able to identify drop off patterns in the form of the attack.It is possible to group how the victim is hardened in three ways, each giving clue to the offender. First is when the criminal treats the victim as a person this is when a conversation is involved in the duration of the attack, asking things to the with the womans love and personal life or complimenting her on her looks and body. This type of criminal believes that he is developing some sort of kin with the victim and incorrectl y thinks that the sexual assault produces closeness. The second is when the victim is treated as an object in this case, the victim may be blindfolded, plot the offender tends to be covered. The offender here will mainly be concerned with control in the interaction of the rape. The third and final is when the victim is treated as vehicle when this is the case the offender uses violence to bring down the victim. The actions here are a mirror of the offenders anger and aggression.The third real life case I will discuss in the report is the case of Rachel Nickell, wherein Offender Profiling was used to help the police officers find the offender and help the CJS make a fair verdict. On fifteenth July 1992, a 23 year old model, Rachel Nickell, was walking with her son and her hot dog in Wimbledon car park when she was attacked and brutally killed. Alex (Nickells two year old son) was thrown and twisted into the bushes while Nickell was sexually assaulted, stabbed 49 times and had h er throat cut. Another hiker who was also walking in the Common discovered Alex clinging to his mothers dead body, cry and p tip with her to get up. It was later found that Alex stuck a piece of motif on his mothers forehead in place of a plaster in attempt to make his mum better.The police tried their best to find the criminal but failed to do so. They felt under pressure and as a result, turned to a Forensic psychologist named Paul Britton, an expert in the science of Offender Profiling, and asked him to conduct an offender profile for this crime case. Britton had antecedently helped the police identify the killers of Jamie Bulger in Liver pocket billiards, and had worked on the Frederick West House of Horrors murders in Gloucester, and was felt to be the right man for the speculate.4A suspect was eventually identified by Britton and it was noted that he seemed to fit the profile well. A complex surgical process was planned by Britton, which was aiming to tempt Stagg into a vindication using an undercover female police officer who faked a amatory interest in Stagg and a liking for Satanism. However, despite her efforts Stagg did not confess. force of Offender Profiling in each caseCanter (1990) is the UKs leading profiling expert his approach looks out for the behaviour of the offender during the crime. In his approach no assumptions are made about the criminal and the approach relies heavily on facts. Canter believes that his approach has several advantages over crime scene analysis. First, his type of Offender Profiling draws directly on widely known psychological concepts. Second, his approach could be used extensively and should not be limited to just rape and murder. Finally, in his approach there is less chance for biased decision making. Canter argues that his approach is more scientific than the FBIs and as a result, his profiles are more useful in share the police touch the actual offender and the CJS to make a fair verdict.5John Duffy, Ra ilway RapistFor John Duffys case, Canter created a profile with the following key facts belonging to the rapistThe rapist would get laid in the area near some of the attacks.He would be animated with his girlfriend or wife and will not have a child.He would be in his late 20s his blood fluids would contain indigen antigens and he would be right-handed.He would be skilled in his job and work only at the weekends.He knows the railway system very well.He would have a criminal record of violence.This profile represents the use of behavioural characteristics to search for a criminal instead of pure forensic evidence from the crime scene. Out of 2000 suspects, Canter pin signaled the 1505th suspect, John Duffy, who was the actual offender. Duffy fit most of the profile, including a criminal conviction for raping his wife. The profile Canter developed matched 13 out of 17 details about Duffys characteristics. The remaining that didnt match Duffy was the biological characteristics the of fender was a lot shorter than victims remembered and many had described him as having black or even ginger hair. From the accuracy, it is evident that Offender Profiling has been a very effective investigative tool to use in this crime case.6Adrian BabbFor Adrian Babbs case, Canter created a profile with the following key facts belonging to the attackerNot raving mad because force is only used when necessaryAthletic body suggests that that offender has an interest of solitary sports e.g. swimming or body-buildingCleanliness and organisation suggests that he was obsessiveNo attempt to cover him or hide forensic evidence suggests that he was not aware of the procedures and therefore has not convicted before for this type of crimeEase with elderly women suggests that he dealt with elderly people in non-offence backgroundKnowledge of tower blocks suggests that he make its in oneBased on this profile, a police officer searched through the records of minor sexual offenders and found a m atch between Babbs fingerprints and those at the crime scene. It is evident that Offender Profiling has been a very effective tool to utilise in this case because it has helped the police catch the offender. From the above, we can see that Canters predictions were very accurate. As Canter returnly utter in the profile, the offender must have had no forensic sentiency or knowledge of the likely procedures as he made no attempt to disguise himself. This was a very valuable point that led to the arrest of Babb. As Canter also predicted, Babb attended the swimming pool very often hence the cleanliness and the lack of body odour and also looked after sessions for the elderly.Rachel NickellBrittons first task was to set up a clear picture of the kind of person Rachel was by interviewing her family and friends. His initial thoughts related to Alex, Nickells son. The fact that Alex was not harmed meant that Rachel had not known the offender and so this was not likely to be a domestic mur der. The nature of the attack pointed towards a violent sexual psychopath.Based on his past interactions with sexual killers, Britton drew up a profile of the offender with the following pointsThe offender would be aged between 20 and 30 because the legal age of sexual attacks are committed by young menHe would not have the ability to relate to women in normal conversation.He would either have a history of failed or unsatisfactory relationships or no relationship historyHe would suffer from some form of sexual dysfunctionHe would be attracted to pornography which would play a role in his sexual fantasy lifeHe would only have average countersign and education because the attack was brutalIf employed, he would work in an rusty or labouring occupationHe would be single and have a relatively isolated lifestyleHe would have nongregarious hobbies and interestsHe would live within easy walking distance of Wimbledon Common and would be thoroughly familiar with itHe would be very likely to kill another young woman at some point in the future.Colin Stagg was the named that cropped up four times after the murderers profile was broadcasted on Crimewatch. Stagg fitted Brittons profile precisely. During the police interview Stagg denied any involvement in the crime, but his answers to questions made stronger the match with Brittons profile. The police could find no physical evidence connecting Stagg to the murder but he remained the number one suspect. The complex operation which was planned by Britton had an adverse effect on the whole case. The evidence of Brittons profile and the information obtained from Lizzie James was thrown out of court and the disproof argued that Brittons evidence was speculative and supported only by his instinct. Stagg was set excess and Rachels killer was never found. This shows how Offender Profiling can be misused, misinterpret and misinterpreted if not conducted in a scientific way.ConclusionThere are many arguments discussing the eff ectiveness of Offender Profiling, some of which are positive and some which are negative. Even though there have been less announce cases where Offender Profiling was less accurate e.g. Copson (1995), it can still be a very useful tool in terms of helping the police find the offender. However it is important for the police to be scrupulous not to be blinded to other possibilities. Occasionally criminals do not fit the profile and over use could lead to misjudgement of the Criminal Justice System. Offender profiling is more prediction than science based and therefore the validity is debated. Due to the fact that there is no hard evidence to work from, it is not possible to gain a definite result. stomp can be another factor that affects the way a criminal is profiled. For example, it may be that most rapists are single men that live on their own or with their parents but this may not endlessly be the case and could lead to an inaccurate profile being created if the criminal is a m arried man who lives with his family.To assess the effectiveness of this investigative tool different research has been conducted. For example, Britton (1992) sent out questionnaires to the Criminal Investigation division to identify the number of cases where an offender had been profiled led to arrest. He found that the results were in the main negative in the sense that most cases that were profiled did not lead to arrest. However, the majority of the respondents commented that it could have had a lot of potential in their experience of Offender Profiling.7

Saturday, March 30, 2019

The History Of Molecular Modeling Biology Essay

The History Of molecular(a)(a)(a)(a) Modeling Biology Essay molecular poseing is a gathering of science and art that study molecular coordinate and mould by victimisation computational proficiency to generate a realistic mannequin of molecule found on molecular properties and behavior. A special figurer vivids diligence and witnesser is required to study the image of molecular trunk organize and chemical military operation. Norm each(prenominal)y, molecular moulding is applied in heavens that re new-fangledd to drug design and computational biology who focus on study of molecular social organisation, dynamic, properties, biological make upivity (e.g. protein spateing, protein stability, protein recognition, and an miteical bodily twist prediction, social organization determination), and brisk molecular transcription design. This is beca using up mold dejection support a taxonomical way to investigate the molecular organise, flexibility and ch romosome mapping.The computational approach that utilize in molecular moulding consists of molecular auto-mechanic, quantum mechanics, and molecular simulation. Molecular mechanic is establish on empirical result to posture the molecular system by dint of motion of an object. For instance, potential energy is calcu slowlyd by using force field method. Quantum mechanics is described by using range function and it is important for understand how the atoms atomic number 18 covalently combine to comprise molecule. Its precedent is ab initio and semi-empirical quantum mechanics. Molecular simulation is a nonher computational technique which includes molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo. However, to date, molecular impersonateing is much concerns to the practise of a variety of methods to deduce the atomic culture of a system which includes all the approaches menti mavind above.To make love more near molecular estimator simulationing, we argon advised to know some of its h istory so we discount make sense of molecular sit arounding as we know it today. In 1858, Archibald Scott Couper, Friedrich August Kekul von Stradonitz, and Aleksandr Mikhailovich Butlerov introduced chemical social structure with a structure rule that involves the link of carbons and other(a) atoms. Louis Pasteur modified the molecular structure theory in 1860. In 1865, August Wilhelm Hofmann discovered junky and stick model and colour in scheme. And Alder and Wainwright put to deathed simulation technique on hard spheres model in 1959. Lifson, Scheraga, Allinger, Levitt, Warshel and others introduced the force field model in 1960. Whilst in 1970, Rahman and Stillinger described the molecular dynamic simulation of water. In 1971, Protein Data verify (PDB) was established. In 1977 and 1984, water force field was develop by Ber discontinuesen and Jorgensen respectively. At same(p) year, Warshel and colleagues published the concept of protein electrostatics and enzyme-substr ate complex. At late mid-eighties, juicy speed computer, program, technology innovation, and a variety of algorithm were introduced.From paragraph above, we only know some important year between late 1850s to 1980s. From 1970s onwards, on that point is a proposed expectation curve as shown in word form 1.1. As computational method and technology ar more avail adequate to(p), the expectation towards biomolecular modeling field was continued to rise especially from 1980s to 1990s. Structure based rational drug design was because introduced. It was judge to re menage the less efficient methods. However, unrealistically disappointment was followed. past scientists permit a recovery phase where Human Genome Project was introduced and new technology with fast workstation was published. With these, a steady progress of productivity is emerged until today in order to reach the realistic expectation. In addition, it is important to know that the up-to-the-minute molecular modeling trend is focusing on the development and carrying into action of virtual reality whose enhance the three dimensional opticization.Nowadays, molecular modeling has been converted the way to conduct a research, that is choosing the experiment with highest probability of supremacy before perform it. So, there is a demand to have a better and faster program design. It is important to know that molecular model need not be commercial or costly to prep be, trashy materials overly possible to produce useful model and result.Question 2 Molecular graphics and molecular viewerIf we said that molecular modeling is creation of computational model based on molecular properties and behavior, so molecular graphic is the graphical depiction of molecular modeling. Molecular graphic is a discipline of study molecule through visualization of molecules and their contri yetion parts. It is refers to three-d depictions of molecules that made to examine and understand their response during react ion and interaction. To date, molecular graphic has been replaced some function of physical molecule model as it is portability and easy to interact with epitome result.In the early stage of molecular graphic, computer graphic tool was dominated by vector graphical representation based on calligraphic technology. During that time, only line and back breaker were shown. And of import frame computer was required to manipulate the molecular structure before submit to graphic hardware. Until the founded of Molecular Graphics Society (know as Molecular Graphics and Modeling Society today) in 1983 and present of daybook of Molecular Graphics, new graphic techniques, hardware device and graphical software program were introduced. This discovery go aways the interactivity on the basis of space filling molecular model.As we know that, molecular objects are in three-dimensional structure. So molecular graphic representation (MGR) is concerns to the multi-dimensionality in order to provi de more molecular information. Graphical excellence is use as a guideline for the MGR development. It is head designed to present data and it consists of complex idea that able to slide by with clarity, precision, and efficiency. Basically, the graphical display exit shows data, induces viewer to have greatest identification number of idea, makes large data set to be coherent, encourage eyeball technique to compare data by using human eye, integrates statistical and communicatory description of a data set, and reveals data at opposite levels to separate more details. on that point are several cases of molecular model that think to molecular graphic in order to combine the computational technique with graphic art. Here, I will briefly wrangle a hardly a(prenominal) types that commonly used.Ball and stick model is the most widely used molecular model. It displays the three-dimensional position of atoms and bandages that link between them. Typically, atom is delineated by sphere with specific color and tie up is represented by rod. The rod can be rotate to provide the insight of bond flexible. The word form 2.1 shows the proline in ball and stick model and its structural formula. total darkness color represents carbon, white represents henry, blue represents nitrogen, and red represents free radical O.Stick model (refer direct 2.2) is similar to ball and stick model but without ball as it represents all atoms and bonds by using rod with different color scheme. distance filling model (refer Figure 2.2) is a type ofthree-dimensionalmolecular modelwhere theatomsare represented by van der Waals spheres with different color and join directly to one another. Its measurement scale is the same as the real atom scale. It shows the space that atom occupied instead of shows the chemical bond.Wire frame model (refer Figure 2.3) is similar to stick model which shows the connection of atom by different color scheme but with thinner bond (connector). This mo del is convenient for drawing large molecules. jaundiced wire model (refer Figure 2.4) is another method to visualize molecular model by drawing the polygon mesh on surface. Its sort is similar to the regularhexagonal bod with meshstructure.Ribbon model (refer Figure 2.5) is a three dimensional schematic molecular model that used to represent protein structure. It shows the path and organization of protein backbone, and serves as visual exemplar that provides details of atomic structure. Coiled ribbon represents -helix,arrow represents -strand, and thin tubes represents loop. It shows the visual basic of molecular structure such as twist and flock.Molecular viewer is the molecular graphic software that used to visualize molecular structure. It is selected based on the size of molecule and the task to do. Here, I will briefly discuss a few types of viewer that commonly used.RasMol is a powerful research tool for visualization of protein, nucleic acid, and small molecules. It is ea sy to use while able to produce high quality three-dimensional image. It is a free viewing system for PDB coordinate files.Chime is a molecular viewer that modified RasMol code to let visualization of molecule through weather vane browser. It able to display three-dimensional and interactive molecular model from webpage.Jmol is a Java-based molecular viewer that allows visualization of molecule through web browser (like Chime) or stand-alone computer (like RasMol). It supports many different seminal fluid files such as PDB format to create molecular model.Cn3D is NCBIs three-dimensional structure viewer. It allows the display of three-dimensional structure, rate, and place alignment with annotation and alignment editing feature from NCBIs Entrez.Swiss PDB Viewer or DeepView is a molecular viewer that provide user friendly interface which allows analyzing several proteins or five-fold models at same time. It supports alignment which based on individualistic residue, main chain , or entire protein. It also can align different homologous protein structure. It can be used as a helper activity for browser.Visual Molecular Dynamics (VMD) is designed for visualization of large structure molecule such as protein and lipid. Except visualization, VMD also can essay molecular dynamic simulation, act as graphical front end by display and animate molecule, and period browsing.Question 3 Protein structure with reference to hemoglobin and the prion proteinProtein structure is biomolecular structure of protein molecule which made up of amino acid polymers. It is critical to its activity and biological function. X-ray crystallographyand nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are technique that used to determine the protein structure. Basically, the complex protein structure is characterized into foursome levels of organization (refer Figure 3.1).Primary structure of protein is a unidimensional sequence of amino acid structural unit that held together by peptide bo nd. It is starting from amino terminus (N) and end with carboxyl terminus (C). The sequence of amino acid will determines primary structure of protein. Change in a single position of amino acid will alter the function and activity of protein, some might cause disease.Secondary structure of protein is local conformation of polypeptide chain. It defined bythe pattern of hydrogen bond that formed between peptide backbones. The polypeptide folds locally into stable structure will form important helix, beta pleated sheet, and turn conformation.Tertiary structure of protein is a globular three-dimensional structure that formed when secondary structures are folded in three-dimensional space. This folding is triggered by hydrophobic interaction and stabilized by hydrogen bond, van der Waal interaction, disulfide bond, and charge-charge interaction. Tertiary structure can be form by more than one expanse. Domain area can be of import helix, beta sheet or mixed. Tertiary structure refer s to each individual line of business as well as to the complete configuration of only protein. Whilst motif is small structure that plays important role in protein prediction. quartette structure of protein refers to regular association of more than two polypeptide fetter that fold and coil to form a complex. The interaction between subunits can be identical or different. Quaternary structure is cognize as a stable three-dimensional structure of multi subunit protein.Hemoglobin is event of protein multiple structure that found in red blood cells who acts as group O transport molecule. It carries oxygen from lung to sledding in interweave, and binds to carbon dioxide in tissue then releases back to lung. This process is characterized by cooperative interaction of polypeptide chains (subunit) by change their structure to make hemoglobin to be mighty function.Hemoglobin (Figure 3.2) is an allosteric protein. It is a tetramer that consists of two types of subunits, two -chain s and two -chains that held together by non-polar interaction and hydrogen bond. Each subunit is arranged as alpha helix structural segment and forms a hydrophobic cleft to allow the attachment of a hemeprosthetic group that consists of an iron atom who acts as oxygen binding site. Each of the subunits can carry one molecule of oxygen.Actually, there has no contact between same type of chain, that is alpha-alpha chain, and beta-beta chain. The contact neighbourhood occurs between alpha-chain and beta-chain such as alpha1beta1and alpha1beta2. The alpha1beta2contact region acts as a switch between deoxy (T) structure to the oxy (R) structure. At T structure or tense evince, binding of oxygen is difficult. While oxygen is favored at R structure or relax state as binding of oxygen will trigger the affinity of adjacent oxygen to hemoglobin. Transition from T structure to R structure is triggered by stereo chemical changes at the heme group as shown in Figure 3.3.Like other proteins, h emoglobin is created by DNA in body. Alteration of amino acid will cause blood think disorder such as sickle cell anemia. This disease is results from a mutation at sixth residue in the hemoglobin monomer.proteinaceous infectious virion (prion) is an infectious protein that causes neurodegenerative disease such as Scrapie and Bovine Spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in mammal, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob (CJD) and Kuru in human. Prion is known as an infectious performer that infects protein, without the channel of nucleic acid genome, and it causes other proteins to be misfolded.Proteinaceous infectious particle (PrP), a normal cellular protein, consists of around 250 amino acids is found in our body whose involve in the spread of prion disease. Prion theory states that PrP is sole causative agent of prion diseases. If prion is in normal or stable effect (PrPc), it will not cause disease. Whilst if prion is flipped and folded into abnormal conformation (PrPsc), it will cause disease a s it induces other proteins to change their conformation and becomes PrPsc as well. This translation is an exponential process where -helical and coil structures are refolded into -sheet.PrPcis the endogenous form of prion protein (PrP), while PrPscis the misfolded form of PrP. PrPc and PrPsc are known as protein isoform with tertiary structure characteristic. They are categorized as same protein but with different conformation as their folding region is different as shown in Figure 3.4. PrPc contains more -helical and coil structureand PrPsc has more -sheet structure.Prion structure is extremely stable. It is highly resistant to denaturation either by heat, ultraviolet light, or radiation. This characteristic makes prion difficult to be eliminated. Furthermore, prion comes in different strains. Each of the strain has slightly different structure. In other words, there has no effective treatment to fight with prion diseases.Question 4 Protein databasesDatabase is an organized collec tion of data which allows the convenient access of user. Database can be classify into a variety of type. Here, we only focus on the protein data type. at that place are three types of protein database, that is protein structure database, protein sequence database, and protein motif database. Before discuss the three types of databases, I would like to briefly describe Protein Data Bank (PDB) which is the primary protein database.Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a worldwide repository of three-dimensional structural data of biological macromolecules. Until March 12, 2013, there are 88837 structures in PDB, in which 82224 are protein structure or 92.56% of PDB structure is protein. All the protein structures are obtained through x-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, cryoelectron microscopy (cryoEM), hybrid technique, and other experimental method.Since 1971, PDB is under the management of Bookhaven. Until 1999, Research Collaboratory of Structural Bioinfor matics (RCSB PDB) takes over this task. In 2003, Worldwide PDB (wwPDB) maintains and formalizes the international collaboration by involve RCSB PDB (USA), PDB Japan (PDBj), PDB atomic number 63 (PDBe), and Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank (BMRB) as members of wwPDB. They act as distribution centers of PDB data.PDB acts as a very important preference to organize and share molecule structure data especially in structural biology area. It serves as a global community to allow scientist to share their research. Currently, the newly rigid protein structure will be deposited into PDB data before the scientific paper is published. Except three-dimensional database, PDB also known as primary database for protein structure information. Derived or secondary database will use the PDB data and categorize it in a different way based on their own categorisation.Protein structure database groups protein based on the similar protein structure and common evolutionary origin. Structural Cla ssification of Proteins (SCOP), CATH, and DALI Domain Dictionary (DDD) databases are the three main protein structure classification databases. But here I will only discuss SCOP and CATH.SCOP is a repository that organizes protein structure hierarchically based on their structure and evolutionary origin. The classification of SCOP is manually. With assistant of computer tool, SCOP able to visual and compare the protein structure consistency. The latest version of SCOP is 1.75 that released on June 2009 with 38221 PDB entries and 110800 domains. The source of protein structure is from Protein Data Bank.The classification of SCOP has six levels that are class, fold, superfamily, family, protein, and species. There are eleven classes in SCOP hierarchy which differentiate by fold type alpha , beta , alpha and beta (/), alpha confirming beta (+), multi-domain protein, membrane protein, small protein, coiled coil protein, low colonization structure, peptide, and designed protein. Betwee n the eleven classes, only the first seven classes are known as true class and others serve as place holder for protein domain that have not been classified. Proteins are classified into group based on their structure similarity.The unit of classification is protein domain. The shape of domain is known as fold. Proteins share common fold if they have same major secondary structures in same arrangement and same topological connections. Superfamily is potential has common evolutionary origin which share common fold and perform similar function. Family shows a clearly evolutionary relationship of proteins with more than 30% sequence identity. Protein level will connect proteins through similar function and structure. The last level, species, is grouped according to unique sequence.CATH is a semi-automated protein structure classification in which the protein domain is classified based on class (C), computer architecture (A), topology (T), and homologous superfamily (H). The latest vers ion of CATH is 3.5 that released on September 20, 2011 with 51334 PDB entries, 173536 CATH domains, and 26226 CATH superfamilies.CATH has four classes, they are alpha, beta, alpha and beta, and few secondary structure. The class of protein domain is determined by its secondary structure composition. Architecture level describes the overall shape of domain structure that determined by secondary structure orientation. Then, domain will be grouped into topology level based on secondary structure shape and connectivity. Homologous superfamily level will then grouped protein domains together based on similar structure, function, and has common ancestor.Protein sequence database can be divided into manually and automatically annotated database. UniProtKB/SwissProt and Protein Information Resource-International Protein succession Database (PIR-PSD) are example of manually annotated database. UniProtKB/TrEMBL and NCBI GenPept are example of automatically annotated database. Here, I will di scuss the UniProt Knowledgebase (UniProtKB) as example.UniProtKB is a protein sequence and functional information database. The data type that captured in is known as protein annotation. UniProtKB consists of two sections UniProtKB/SwissProt which can be reviewed and UniProtKB/TrEMBL which cannot be reviewed. Most of the sequence in UniProtKB is derived from International cornerstone Sequence Database (INSD) and some from PDB database. All these sequences will be automatically added into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. Then the TrEMBL records can be manually selected to be integrated into SwissProt record.UniProtKB/SwissProt is a high curated and non-redundant protein sequence database. The release 2013_03 of March 6, 2013 has 539616 sequence entries. It combines the experimental result, computational analysis, and scientific literature in one entry. It provides all relevant information about the searched protein as the sequence form same gene and same species are merged into same entry. Its fil e format such as FASTA is downloadable by public.UniProtKB/TrEMBL is a high quality computational analyze and redundant protein sequence database. That means, TrEMBL is computer annotated supplement to SwissProt but with multiple entries for sam eprotein. The release 2013_03 of TrEMBL on March 6, 2013 has 32153798 sequence entries. However, its entry is not redundant to SwissProt. Therefore, the entry of UniProtKB on release 2013_03 will be the combination entry of SwissProt and TrEMBL that is 32693414.Protein motif database also known as pattern and profile database is secondary database that derived from maintain pattern obtained from multiple sequence alignment. It is useful for the classification of protein sequence into family level. PROSITE and BLOCKS are example of motif based database.PROSITE is a protein domain, family and functional site database which comprise of biologically significant protein site, pattern, and profile. It analyzes protein sequence for known motif. PR OSITE classification is based on observation. identical protein sequence will be group into family. And protein domain is classified based on families that share common ancestor or has functional attribute. PROSITE records have the information of structure and function for a particular protein. It is part of theExPASyproteomicsanalysis servers and it used the annotation of domain features of SwissProt entry. Up to date, the latest version is release 20.91 of March 4, 2013 with 1661 entries, 1308 patterns, 1053 profiles, and 1057 ProRule.ProRule is the case rule that provides extra information about function and structural of critical amino acids. For instance, it contains the information related to biologically substantive residue such as active sites, co-factor-binding sites,and post-translationalmodification sites. It helps the protein function determination. And it able to generate annotation automatically based on the PROSITE motifs.PROSITE database is used when target the p ossible function of newly discovered protein, and determine activity of known protein. We also can derive a signature or conserved sequence from protein in order to classify protein. This is because each PROSITE signature is colligate to an annotation document, where has all related information of the particular protein. PROSITE offers tool that can function for motif detection and protein sequence analysis. The most common application or archive is fingerprint that act as evidence to get wind an individual.AppendixFigure 1.1 Expectation curve for biomolecular modeling and simulation accuseL-proline-3D-balls.pnghttp// special K/thumb/f/ff/Prolin_-_Proline.svg/121px-Prolin_-_Proline.svg.pngFigure 2.1 Ball and stick model of proline Structural formula of prolineSpace filling modelStick modelhttp// 2.2 Stick model (left) and space filling model (right) of prolinehttp// a/btwf.gifFigure 2.3 Wire frame modelhttp// 2.4 Chicken wire model with stick model Figure 2.5 Ribbon modelhttp// 3.1 Four levels of protein structureDiagrammatic representation of the structure of hemoglobinFigure 3.2 Hemoglobinhttp// 3.3 Conformation transition from T structure to R structurePrPscPrPcPrion structureFigure 3.4 Prion protein in abnormal conformation, PrPsc (left) and prion protein in normal conformation, PrPc (right)

Role of Information Technology in Business

Role of breeding Technology in pedigree head vogue 1What is a system of rules?A eagerness of detailed methods, procedures, and procedures were created to rent out a ad hoc activity, to perform a duty, or to go a problem.An organized, draw a bead onful structure consisting of interconnected and interdependent elements (comp wizardnts, entities, factors, members, parts, etc.). These elements be continuously interacting with each separate to maintain their activity and the existence of the system, in crop to achieve the refinement of the system.What is Systems Theory System hypothesis and system intuition is multidisciplinary research system in general, and found the target mode, and illustrate that it is possible from several(a) fields of research gage be discerned, and in exclusively the nesting level is applicable to all types of systems ar in principle. It tail be considered as a specialized system of thinking or for the goal of system science and system enginee ring. The focus is on general mean in a wide range of systems (specific models with individual argonas) that argon manipulationful.Who substantial Systems TheoryTheoretical biologist L.V. Bertalanffy (L.Von.Bertalanffy) was founded. He put forward the theory of open system in 1932, and put forward the idea of system theory. In 1937, the principle of general system theory was put forward, which lay the theoretical foundation of this science. gesture 2Identify FOUR unlike types of Information Systems used in demarcation opening move organization effect treat Systems Transaction moveing systems meet the selective information collection, storage, processing and outputting functionalities for the core trading operations of a business.Customer Relationship Management Systems Business owners use node relationship systems to synchronize gross revenue and food marketing efforts. CRM systems accumulate and track node activities, including purchasing trends, product defects and customer inquiries.Business Intelligence Systems Business parole systems can be complex as they identify, extract and analyze selective information for various operational needs, particularly for decision-making purposes. BIS tuition systems may provide dismembers that shout out future sales patterns, summarize current be and forecast sales revenues.Knowledge Management Systems Knowledge repugnment systems organize and dissect fellowship and then redistri exclusivelye or share it with individuals of an organization. The purpose of these entropy systems is to start out innovation, improve performance, bring integration and retain knowledge inside the organization. mind 3 Choose any three type of culture Systems place earlier and describe themDescribe the concept of each system and alike draw a symbolic representation wherever possibleTransaction Processing Systems Transaction Processing Systems also known as sales information system, provide to the someonenel system, is on business processes for the deem of information system can provide a powerful tool support for a job to comp permite. For employment, ERP system, we can be seen as a regular(prenominal) business processing system, it can be colligate to the production, procurement and some other business links, based on some functional modules to provide a good support.Customer Relationship Management Systems relationship circumspection (CRM) is an approaching to managing a companions interaction with current and potential future customers. The CRM approach tries to analyse data about customers history with a company, to improve business relationships with customers, specifically focusing on customer retention, and ultimately to drive sales growth.MIS are built on the data provided by Transaction Processing system. It slackly manages the internal files and summarizing.The level of management in MIS is mid level those are responsible for the processing of further processes to the high er management.Business Intelligence Systems Business intelligence (BI) can be described as a set of techniques and tools for the acquisition and transformation of raw data into meaningful and useful information for business compend purposes.The term data surfacing is also to a capitaler extent often associated with BI functionality.The integration of documents, records, collection of knowledge and its retrieval are included in this system.Knowledge Management Systems Knowledge management (KM) is the process of capturing, developing, sharing, and effectively using organizational knowledge. It refers to a multi-disciplinary approach to achieving organizational objectives by making the best use of knowledge.This usually provided by the front staff or accounting management team, which provide the key data ask to support the operation.Task 2Question 1 Identify and explicate the purpose and function s of any one computer practise most commonly used in any type of business organisat ion.Microsoft spotlight productsIt can do all the accounting steps for the purpose of Excel.It can perform all the accounting calculations is the function of excel.Question 2 Identify and explain the purpose and functions of any one computer occupation used in any common functional area within a sub-system of a business organisation. world power Microsoft is a set of office software package based on Windows operating system positive by Microsoft Corp. Commonly used components are Word, Excel, Access, Power point, FrontPage, etc. situation Word Microsoft is a text fileOffice Access Microsoft is through in the databaseOffice Excel Microsoft is done with tables and data processingOffice Outlook Microsoft is to send and fill mailOffice PowerPoint Microsoft is making a slide.I think the Microsoft office run into us easy to manage something eventful.And It is very user-friendly, can record some useful data whenever and wherever possible.Question 3 Identify and explain the purpose a nd functions of any dickens computer applications uniquely used for different types of businesses. purposeKakao chew up Kakao Talk is a Chinese from South Korea by the second wide-rangingst shareholder of the Tencent (It is a Chinese company) as a free chat software, similar to WeChats QQ chat software, applications for iPhone, Android, WP, blackberry bush and other smart mobile band communication. The application to the actual phone number to manage friends, with the push notification usefulness, to quickly send and receive information among friends and colleagues as healthy as pictures, voice intercom. Similar to the home(prenominal) QQ, even if friends are not online, friends can also receive your talk kakao messages, just like texting.SkypeSkype is an instant messaging software, which has the function of IM, such as video chat, multiplayer voice conferencing, multiplayer chat, transfer files, text chat and other functions. It can be free of high clear voice dialogue with other users, you can also call the domestic international telephone, either a fixed telephone or mobile phone can be directly dialed, and can achieve call transfer, SMS and other functions.Difference direct Skype network phone is very mature, good quality and good, the charge is reasonable, let a person without charges of worry , and it is very easy to use. Kakaotalk is good but some old people cannot use it very well.Question 4 Explain the effects of information engine room on business systems in terms of benefits and costs.(a) The following two one off benefits of adopting information technologyThe delivery of products and services forget be timely and effective.Peoples mistakes will be reduced, and the cost will be reduced.(b) The following two ongoing benefits of adopting information technologyThis technique can be repeated using more(prenominal) than one purpose, so there will be a large number of uses.Make this technology can save money in the stock holding area.(c) The f ollowing two ongoing costs of adopting Information TechnologyUpgrade operating system time cost.The company and the service cost paid to the user.(d) The following two one off costs of adopting information technology Information systems play an important role in a company or an organization. The cost of each character is different. As an information system of a company, in order to promote their company or provide some online platform for their customers, so it costs more money.There are also some software required to pay.Task 3Answer ADATAData is a collection of specific contextual information, as well as in a business organization, for the maintenance of a specific object data, and information workers..There are ternion types of data. These are as followsPrimary Data it is first-hand information which we collect by ourselves.Secondary Data This data is second hand or it is hoard from third partyQuantitative and soft data Qualitative outline and vicenary psychoanalysis should be unified, complement each other, qualitative analysis is the basic premise of quantitative analysis and qualitative not quantitative is a blind, no value for quantitative quantitative analysis to qualitative analysis more scientific and precise, it can make qualitative analysis of the extensive and in-depth conclusions.Answer BInformationInformation can be defined as an organized form of the original data set, in the organization of information plays a very important role in the decision.Example of three different type of informationInspections It can be defined as a collection of raw data for a particular thing, to prove things to a decision-making layer.Research A collection of data in a particular field or discipline.Survey It is the simplest way to gather information.Question 2 The three sources where information can be gathered-1 social surveySocial survey is an important means to obtain real and reliable information. Social survey refers to the use of observation, inquiry and other methods directly from the community to understand the situation, the activities of the collection of data and data.2 build intelligence networkManagement activities require accurate information, comprehensive, timely. In order to achieve such a request by a single channel to collect information is far from enough. peculiarly administration and government decision-making. Therefore, it is necessary to collect information in various way, that is to establish the information network of information collection.3 development of strategic intelligenceStrategic intelligence is designed for upper-level decision-makers, only for high-level decision-makers to use more strategic information than general administrative information.Question 3 Threats to DATA(1)Security of DataThere are three nemesiss that make our information be not safeMalware Its like a malicious software that is designed to get access to a computer without the owners consent. vixenish software is not the same as defective software, but it has a legitimate purpose, but contain harmful errorsHackers If the system is not well protected, then the hacker can easily access the file without the owners permission. raze if they can copy or delete files. Such a person is called a hacker. In a business environment, because there is a large network, so hackers can easily break down the systemcomputer virus It may be considered a software designed to disrupt or stop the systems work. It can be through a system to another, it can also enter the system through email, Internet, flash drive and other accessories(2)Integrity of dataThe three threats to integrity of data are mentioned below software product AttacksHuman ErrorsNatural DisastersA) software attack is the most common threat today, resulting in the change of data or information is disclosed.B) error in the input dataNatural disasters are also responsible for it. For example earthquakes, floods, fires, volcanoes, tsunamis, etc.Question 4Answer AHR Admin A charitable resource management role is the combination of management and human resource It is also known as human resources and personnel It will be to the organization from the organization department to the Department and our own undercoat and talentsFinance Under the conditions of certainty and uncertainty, with the passage of time, the distribution of assets and liabilities is a field. sales A sales is the exchange of a commodity for money or service in return for money or the action of selling something.Answer B There are three types of data related with above three sub-systemsFinance related data There are number of finance data that specialized in sending and assembling the data to traders and investors.Sales data All the data used in sales is known as the sales data Like the weathervane server log, Internet streaming data.Usually at the time of sale, these data are referred to as big dataHR ARD The administrator stores data in a place known as the database administrator.Task 4Quention1 Answer APrinciple of PerceptionPrinciple of ReputationPrinciple of leadB Objectives of PrincipleThere is a verb in Chinese A great company needs a great leader. But to be a great leader is to learn from the past, look into the future, and look to the future.The companys reputation is one of its most valuable assets and needs to be protected.A company that manages their market perception has achieved great success.Question 2 A Three supplying and control system used in business.1. Multi-mode manufacturing applications It includes planning, production scheduling2. furnish Chain Management applications It includes sale performance, purchasing, promotion, inventory management and forecast3. Configurable endeavour financials It also includes accounts receivable and payable.Answer BThe financial allocation of enterprise plays a very important role in the enterprise, which includes all the data and records.It retains all accounts receivable, accounts paya ble and account payable recordThe relationship amid strategic planning for multi-mode and product manufacturing application Therefore, in every business, management strategy and plan is a multi-part of manufacturing mode

Friday, March 29, 2019

Social Penetration Theory Psychology

sociable incursion surmisal PsychologyAbstr subroutineThe br early(a)ly sixth sense surmisal is a colloquy and psychological science speculation introductory written by Irwin Altman and Dalmas Taylor. The possibleness outlines concepts of cordial interaction that takes lead when two hatful argon meet to k direct from each one some other. Altman and Taylor proposed that closeness occurs amongst two battalion through a step-by-step mathematical make for of ego-disclosure. The surmise relies heavily on the onion plant plant analogy that paint a pictures that flock ar like multi-layered onions and gift divergent layers of their own(prenominal)ity that they may or may not reveal all over magazine depending on the interaction that takes place. The opening in addition outlines other cases of complaisant interaction such(prenominal)(prenominal) as the cost and observe concept. This concept suggests that great deal base their kinships around the cost and takings outcomes and how they can benefit from that alliance.This spread over exempts in detail the primeval concepts and ideas of the sociable shrewdness conjecture as sanitary as other theories that are re lated with brotherly brainwave such as the affable Exchange possible action. To supercharge investigate the make of Social brainwave auditional look was found to support the effect of self-disclosure in regards to the Social cleverness Theory.After comprehensive study and look into on this topic it was found that closeness between two people rises over a period prison term and through a carry through of self-disclosure. If self-disclosure is not apparent past the consanguinity is credibly to fail. According to the theory people base their friendships on a process of cost and recognize benefits exactly get out ordinarily do this sub-concisely without k this instanting that they have apply this method to determine their bloods. Key ideas such as co incidence levels suggest that an individual determines whether the family is working by the process of realizes = Rewards Costs. fundamentPurposeThe purpose of this report is to render the cordial interaction that takes place between people and to study the fundamentals of human grade behaviour during the slack process of affable acuteness. This report is aimed at giving the reader a better understanding of key concepts of the Social Penetration theory and how it is utilize in everyday situations.ScopeTo fully understand and explain this theory inquiry was conducted over several areas that directly relate to the Social Penetration Theory. These areas of investigate came from 6 important literature sources ranging from journal words to large- get over social experimentations that congeal the theory into practice. mesh research was withal conducted.LimitationsThe limitations of this report intromitAvailability of knowledgeDue to the detail needed to fully understan d the concepts of this theory comm single employ sources such as libraries proved to be of little foster when go steadying study to write this report. Detailed Internet sites were too hard to come by when researching this theory.Time restrictionsAt head start time was not considered to be a major issue but due to the availability of selective information in some(prenominal) library sources and databases time restrictions did become a concern nearing the deadline of this report.Research methodsWhen conducting research regarding the Social Penetration Theory publicly apply sources such as libraries were not as useful as they normally would be. Although two of the 6 sources were gathered from libraries other information that was found in phonograph records was concentrated into slits of no much than than 5 pages. Because this report needed to be exact and informative these sources were of no use. When detailed books were finally found they were still not as useful as th e longer articles found employ Internet sites and databases. When searching for information using Internet databases such as Proquest I was able to find sesss more in-depth and detailed information into the study of Social Penetration. Searching for information using Internet articles and journals proved to be the best elbow room to find accurate sources.Structure of reportThis report is organised into the following social systemTitle page, including submission elaborate and abstract.Table of contents.Introduction, includes details on purpose, backdrop and research methods used to produce this report.Literature review, Provides detailed information on each individual source including background information on the cause/s.Findings, includes descriptions on the theorists, outlines the key concepts of the theory, application of the theory and an rating of the theory.Conclusion, summarises the key points and concepts of the theory and critique of the theory.References and glossa ry of terms, references alternating(a) web-sites and books that were as tumesce as used when researching as wholesome as a glossary of terms that explains key words used in this report.Literature reviewWest, R., Turner, LH. (2007). Introducing communion theory Analysis and use (3rd ed.). mod York McGraw-Hill.SummaryThe information from this source gamyer(prenominal)lights the key components of the Social Penetration theory such as the onion analogy and assumptions of social penetration. It also has an in-depth section on the Social Exchange theory in regards to relative cost and rewards as well as guidelines for self disclosure relating to social penetration. The source also produces a lot of useful case studies and examples that put the theories into practice. It has examples that use a script to depict a conversation between two people in order to highlight the use of social penetration, social exchange and self disclosure. There is also an expanded references section that references the sources of information used for this book.Accuracy And severityThe information contained in this book offers a high level of accuracy in regards to the Social Penetration theory, Social Exchange theory and self disclosure. Both powers have make extensive research on communication theory and wrote numerous books and articles on the subject. Co-author Richard West is an accomplished professor and has a Ph.D from Ohio University. His research spans a scrap of variant areas, including family communication, instructional practices, and classroom communication. He is the recipient of confused teaching and research allots at USM, including the College of Arts and Sciences, capital Teacher-Scholar and the Faculty Senate prize in communion Research. Co-author Lynn H. Turner teaches in the College of Communication at Marquette University. She received her Ph.D. from North-western University in 1989. She is the author of several journal articles, books, and book chapters center on communication studies. She is the recipient of the Marquette University College of Communication Research Award and numerous other awards for communication analysis and theory.DeVito, J. (2004). The social Communication Book (10th ed.). capital of Massachusetts Pearson Education, IncSummaryThis book covers the main concepts of The Social Penetration theory and the Social exchange theory. The section on the Social Exchange theory also features information on comparison levels in relationships as well as profits, rewards and costs and briefly describes aspects of the equity theory in regards to social exchange. It also goes into detail on involution and risks of relationships and deterioration of personal relationships. There is also detailed information on the depenetration of relationships and the stages that it involves such as withdrawal, descend in self disclosure, deception and positive and negative messages.Accuracy And ValidityThe author of this book is Joseph A. DeVito a famous U. S. Communication scholar from Hunter College, mod York. He is a member of the National Communication standstill, the Eastern Communication Association, the International Communication Association, The International Society for General Semantics and the Society for the training of Personal Relationships. He is has written over 15 textbooks on communication which are used by thousands of students worldwide. His articles have appeared in the Quarterly diary of Speech, Communication Monographs, Communication Quarterly, Southern Speech Communication Journal and primordial areas Communication Journal. His extensive knowledge in communication and publication objectiveize gives this textbook a high level of accuracy.Kito, M. (2002). Self-Disclosure in Romantic Relationships and Friendships Among the States and Japanese College Students. Proquest physiology journals, 145(2), 127-140.SummaryThe information in this journal was produced by doing an experimen t regarding self-disclosure and the Social Penetration process. It also explains in detail the key concepts of social interaction and self-disclosure. The author examined whether the level of self disclosure would differ across four eccentric persons of relationships fiery enjoy relationships, companion neck relationships, equivalent- call down friendships and cross-sex friendships. The experiment was make by the Statesn and Japanese participants to examine any ethnical differences in self-disclosure. The expirys produced three main hypotheses, Japanese students scored commence than American students in self disclosure regardless(prenominal) of relationship type, Self disclosure was higher in resembling sex friendships than in cross sex friendships in both American and Japanese students and self disclosure was higher in sentimentalist relationships than in friendships among both American and Japanese students (Kito, M. 2002). The article also has information regarding e ach relationship type and previous(prenominal) authors that have studied sympathetic topics and experiments.Accuracy And ValidityThis article and experiment was written by Mie Kito from the part of psychology, California state university. She is a student at the university and won an award for research and creativity for this piece. She was also awarded the honour of presenting the theory at a psychology seminar in Vancouver, Canada.Allensworth, N. (1996). Social penetration A description, research and evaluation Communication theory. PP. 1-25SummaryThis document covers the main concepts of the Social Penetration Theory. It has a detailed description of the history including the history and progress of Altman and Taylor and the way the theory came into existence. It also incorporates the Onion diagram and describes the layers of social penetration in large(p) detail. The article also has studies that were done in regards to self-disclosure and social penetration. They include mingled experiments that were carried out and the findings of the study. There is also a section on intercultural research to do with social penetration and self disclosure.Accuracy And ValidityThis paper was presented by Nicole J Allensworth at the Annual Meeting of the Southern States Communication Association (Memphis, Tennessee, March 27-31, 1996). The document was presented to researchers involved in communication research studies to affectively demonstrate the effects of communication deep down personal relationships. No other information was found on this author.Baack, D., Fogliasso, C. Harris, J. (2000). The personal Impact of Ethical decisions A Social Penetration Theory. Journal of business moral philosophy, 24, 1, 39- 49.SummaryThis Journal article discusses peoples ethical reasoning and beliefs in regard to social penetration. It talks close the structure and make up of each individual as well as personal characteristics and describes personal benefits in the form o f cost and reward outcomes relating to social exchange and social penetration. The article also talks close to Altman and Taylor and their understandings of social penetration theory. The article features the Onion diagram to establish the canonic concepts of the Onion analogy and also has examples of these processes to put the theory into a real life situation.Accuracy And ValidityThis article was written by Donald Baack, Christine Fogliasso and pile Harris. Donald Baack is a University Professor of heed at PSU. He has an undergraduate spirit level from Dana College, an MBA from Southwest Missouri State University, and a Ph.D. from the University of Nebraska. Baack teaches undergraduate level organisational Theory and Behavior, Advanced organizational Behavior, and graduate level Behavioral Management. Professor Baack is the author and co-author of eight books. Three are college textbooks, in the areas of Management, Organizational Behavior, and Integrated Marketing Communica tions. Christine Fogliasso is a University Professor in the Department of Management and Marketing at Pittsburg State University. Her bachelors degree was earned at Pittsburg State University, and her Ph.D. at the University Of Kansas School Of Law. Her teaching and research areas are business law, ethics and communication. No information was found on author James Harris.Social Penetration The Development of Interpersonal Relationships. (2001) . NewYork Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Retrieved from http// meshwork article has a brief summary that identifies the main concepts of the social penetration theory. The article also has a section on scientific assumptions which tries to explain that social penetration can be referred to as a scientific theory. It argues this point by saying that if self disclosure is high thus the relationship will start this statement can be seen as an equation and therefore can be viewed as a scientific. judge is some other scientific concept that is explained in this article. This refers to predictions that are made on the relationship development ground on the levels of self-disclosure within the relationship. The article also explains in detail how Altman and Taylors Onion analogy operates and how the theory compares people to multilayered onions. The ideas cigaret breadth and depth are also explained in this article.Accuracy And ValidityThis article was written by a corporation called Holt, Rinehart and Winston. They are an educational company that specialises in publishing textbooks and articles for back upary school students around the world. The company is based in Austin, Texas and has been providing educational tools since the early 1900s. Holt, Rinehart and Winston supply textbooks, learning CDs, eLearning sites and many an(prenominal) other kinds of support material for teachers and students. Because Holt, Rinehart and Winston is a internationally kno wn for producing high quality learning tools and equipment its accuracy and validity is of a high level.Findings reach of theoristsIrwin AltmanIrwin Altman was born on July 16th 1930 in New York. Altman mainly specialises in social psychology and social interaction and is experienced in closely areas of communication. His tertiary achievements include a Bachelor of Arts degree from New York University in 1951, a Master of Arts degree from the University of Maryland in 1954 and a Ph.D. also achieved from the University Of Maryland in 1957. Altman also studies environmental psychology and believes there is a strong link between environmental psychology and social psychology, Altman has based many books and articles that relate to this subject. While developing the Social Penetration theory Altmans work was heavily based on human behaviour within several(predicate) environments. Altman is heavily involved in associations including The American Association for the Advancement of Scien ce, the International Association of Applied Psychology and the American Psychology Association. Irwin Altman is before long a professor at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City teaching psychology and social communication.Dalmas TaylorDalmas Taylor was born in 1934 in Detroit, Michigan. After showing an interest in psychology in his teenage years he subsequently went on to study for his Bachelor of Arts degree in Psychology from Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. His research and interest in psychology eventually lead him to further his studies when he received his Masters degree in psychology from Howard University in Washington D.C and his Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Delaware. Taylor also gained a certificate from Harvard University rail line School. Early in his career Taylor worked with the SPSSI (Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues). During the late 1960s Taylor was the chairman of the Dissertation Award Committee and served fo r the SPSSI council for several years. During the mid-seventies Taylor began to teach psychology at various universities throughout North America and eventually became a Professor at the University of Maryland where he taught for 16 years.Taylor also worked with the APA (American Psychological Association) and eventually became a member of groups such as the Board of Ethic Minority Affairs, the Committee on Employment and gentle Resources, the Policy and Planning Board and the Committee on Ethics regulation Revision. His work with the American Psychological Association made very well known among psychologists and he received numerous awards from the APA. Later in his courier Taylor received the Distinguished Contribution to Education and Training Award of the Association and in 1992 he received the Distinguished Service Award for Outstanding Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest. In final stages of his career Taylor served as Vice President of Academic Affairs at Lin coln University in Pennsylvania. Dalmas Taylor died in January 1998 at the age of 64 due to medical conditions. delimit Of Theory/key IssuesPsychologists Irwin Altman and Dalmas Taylor head start established the Social Penetration Theory in 1973. The theories main objective was to explain how relation closeness develops over time. Altman and Taylor suggested that closeness develops within a relationship through a gradual process of self-disclosure, they believed that this process could occur both consciously and sub-consciously when any kind of relationship is developing.This section of the report will describe the Social Penetration Theory by explaining its key concepts includingThe onion analogySelf-disclosureCost and reward outcomes/ Social Exchange TheoryDepenetration and withdrawalThe Onion AnalogyThe Onion analogy can be seen as the most notable aspect of the Social Penetration Theory. The model literally depicts an onion and is used as an analogy by Altman and Taylor to expl ain the foundations of social penetration. The analogy states that humans brood of layers much like an onion. distributively layer reveals more about an individuals personality, the outer(a) layers contain less personal information and the deeper layers consists of the most private details of a persons character. As a result the more layers penetrated the harder it becomes to unlock the abutting layer. Often the type of relationship will have a life-threatening impact on the degree of penetration that occurs for example family relationships, personal relationships, same sex friendships and opposite sex friendships may all have disparate degrees of penetration that take place during a relationship.The penetration of the layers can be associated with two concepts. The first is breadth which refers to the amount of issues and variety of topics being discussed and the second is depth which refers to the degree of conversance being applied on each topic. Each layer has a level of br eath and depth depending on how personal the relationship has become for example friendships may have antithetical levels of breadth and depth compared to a more personal relationship with a provide.Surface LayersThe heighten layers can be seen as superficial information about an individual such as what they look like, how they soak, their body manner of speaking and how they talk. Information on the outer layers is given out a lot faster than the inward layers because it is not as personal. The surface layers can oftentimes be altered so that an individual can change the coming into court they are producing when entering a social situation often for the first time. These changes will usually be things like the way they look and dress or material items such as cars or jewelry. The surface layers help to create a first impression to the outside world and is quickly available to anyone who wishes to notice. After the initial surface layer is penetrated information such as thei r likes and dislikes, favorite movies, musical preferences etc. are revealed as the relationship progresses through the beginning stages.Central LayersThe central or middle layers of the Onion Model can be seen as the characteristics of an individuals personality. This includes aspects such as phantasmal beliefs, personal values and what they consider to be right from wrong. The central layers lodge more understanding into a persons upbringing and culture. The central layers are usually only penetrable by people who know that individual well. In most cases it is unlikely that common friendship will go beyond the central layers.Inner LayersThe midland layer of the Onion model holds a persons most national secrets and beliefs. It is the foundation of their personality and their self-concept. This layer can only be penetrated by the people who are close together(predicate) to individual such as family members or their partner. Even then a persons most inner secrets might only be a ccessible by the individual them self. The inner layers of the Onion Analogy will heavily influence the central and surface layers because it is the basis of their personality.Self-DisclosureThe term self-disclosure refers to the act of revealing details about oneself to others. This process can happen both consciously and sub-consciously depending on the degree of intimacy at any given point throughout the relationship. Personal and intimate details about our personality are usually revealed over time as the relationship becomes more meaningful and important to us.Altman and Taylor believed that the only way a relationship can develop is through a gradual process of self-disclosure. This process is necessary in both wild-eyed relationships and friendships. The act of self-disclosure is one of the main principals in the study of social penetration as well as psychology. Altman and Taylor state that this is the key process that decides if a relationship will succeed or fail occurre ncely if it is a romantic relationship. Altman and Taylors ideas on self-disclosure have sparked many studies on the effects of self-disclosure in both close relationships and common friendships. In 1986 Berg and McQuinn tested self-disclosure by enquire couples that had recently started dating to complete a self-disclosure examination. Four months ulterior the couples were then asked to take the same examination. It was found that couples that were still together four months later reported greater self-disclosure at the initial contact then those who had later broken up. This experiment suggested that the level self-disclosure was not only based on the length of the relationship but also the satisfaction levels of the individuals when they were first get to know each other (Berg McQuinn.1986). Altman and Taylor believed that the process of self-disclosure allowed for a relationship to develop to a more personal level. By allowing this process to occur penetration can take place through the various layers of the onion (the onion analogy). Altman and Taylor believed that the process of penetrating the inner onion layers is especially important when long relationships are developing thus making the process of self-disclosure one of the key concepts of the Social Penetration Theory.Cost And Reward Outcomes/Social Exchange TheoryThe cost and reward outcomes of the Social Penetration Theory were initially based around the concepts developed from Social Exchange Theory. Psychologists John Thibaut and Harold Kelly were seen as the main developers of the Social Exchange Theory in 1959. The Theory is based on a model of cost and reward outcomes of relationships (both friendships and personal relationships) and states that people develop relationships based on whether or not they will profit in the long run. Thibault and Kelly claim that based on the equation profits = Rewards Costs, people will continue being in a relationship if the profit or outcome is in their favour.The idea of costs and rewards is analysed in the theory by using the concept of Comparison levels. This concept suggests that people have a general idea of what they expect or what they deserve to get out of any particular relationship whether its a personal relationship or friendship, this is your known as your comparison level. For example in a personal long-term relationship the individual might expect high levels of trust, love and commitment. If the relationship has just started however they may expect lower levels of privacy, sexual activity and deep communication. When the rewards and profits out way this comparison level the satisfactory level of the relationship will increase for that particular individual.Comparison levels for alternatives refers to the suggestion that people will compare the rewards they are getting out of their current relationship with rewards and profits they could get out of an alternative relationship. For example an individual may feel that they are getting the supreme profits out of their current relationship therefore they are likely to stay with their current partner. If however they feel the relationship has more costs than rewards they are likely to leave that relationship to find a more profitable relationship (DeVito, J. 2004). Altman and Taylors Social Penetration Theory relies on this same method of cost and reward outcomes to determine the path of a relationship.Depenetration And insulationAlthough the Social Penetration Theory examines how a relationship develops it also acknowledges and describes the ship canal in which depenetration and withdrawal can occur. This occurs when the relationship begins to deteriorate either because of a falling out or scarce because the individuals begin to grow apart. The first stage of deterioration is usually intrapersonal dissatisfaction, this occurs when everyday life with the individual seems to be less and less eventful or for filling. If this dissatisfaction continu es then the relationship will proceed to the next stage of deterioration. This stage is known as Interpersonal deterioration, this stage involves growing further and further apart and spending less free time with that individual then they would have at previous points in the relationship. The process of withdrawal or depenetration occurs when one or more of the individuals begin to close of areas of their lives that had once been open in the earlier stages of the relationship. As a result the breadth and depth which once made the relationship more intimate and personal will now begin to drive off. This process can be seen as taking back what has already been used to build the foundations of the relationship, if the foundations are no longer apparent then the relationship becomes unstable. Altman and Taylor have compared this stage of depenetration to watching a movie in reverse (Griffin,EM 2006), in other words everything that has been put into the relationship will now begin to be withdrawn to some extent. A decline in self-disclosure will also be apparent because of the fact there is now less communication and social activities taking place. If there is a decline in self-disclosure levels then the relationship will no longer choke forward. The absence of self-disclosure can often be due to a number of contributing factors including one or more of the individuals no longer olfactory sensation comfortable to communicate with the other on a personal level, they are no longer trust worthy or they are simply not worth the effort. The depenetration and deterioration of a relationship rarely ends in a sudden burst of realisation but rather a gradual process of withdrawal due to lack of enjoyment and intimacy levels in the relationship.Application Of TheoryThe process of social penetration is unaccompanied based on communication and social interaction. As a result this theory is put into practice every day in a variety of situations from common greetings to a wo rk mate to a personal conversation with a family member. Different social interactions will involve different levels of self-disclosure and communication. To illustrate how the theory affects people in everyday life an experiment was found to describe the effects of social penetration and self-disclosure in common relationships including friendships and romantic relationships.This experiment was done by Mie Kito from the California State University as part of her undergraduate honors program in 2003. The experiment gained her an award for research and creativity and was presented at the 83rd annual Western physiological Association convening in Vancouver in May 2003. The purpose of the experiment was to examine different levels of self-disclosure among American and Japanese college students. She examined students that were involved in romantic relationships, companionate relationships and same sex and opposite sex friendships to find out if both cultural background and relationship types played a major role in the level of self-disclosure that was applied in everyday situations. To gain an accurate essay she found a selection of 145 college students, 64 of the students were American and 81 were Japanese. The purpose and aim of the survey was not disclosed to the participants and the information they provided was mystic and no names were obtained to ensure the participants remained anonymous.The methods and procedures she used where as followsThree interchangeable methods were used within the survey gain an accurate sample. These methods were the self-disclosure index (Miller. Berg. Archer.1983), the lustful love scale (Hatfield Spencer. 1986) and the companionate love scale (Hatfield. 1986). The self-disclosure index is a target specific tool that can be used to mensuration self-disclosure among certain groups. The main differences between the companionate love scale and the passionate love scale is that passionate love refers to the feeling of unity w ith another individual who is not currently present where as companionate love refers to the bond between someone who is already heavily involved within an individuals life. When answering questions about passionate relationships the participants were asked to think of their current partner, if they did not currently have a partner then they were asked to think of the last partner that they shared deep feelings for. If the questions involved any friendships they were then asked to think of their closest friendship with either a same sex friend or opposite sex friend depending on the required relationship type for that question.The self-disclosure index included 10 questions of personal information including personal habits, things that the participant wouldnt do in public and their personal feelings on certain issues. Each relationship type was modified to relate to the available answers that could be chosen by the participant. For example one of the questions for the self-disclosu re index for a Passionate love relationship was, I am willing to talk about my deepest feelings on a personal issue with the person I am romantically involved with and another question for self-disclosure in a same sex friendship was Im willing to talk about my deepest feelings on a personal issue with a same sex friend, She then provided the participants with scale of answers to choose from ran

Globalisation, Organisational Behaviour And Organisational Development

Globalisation, Organisational Behaviour And Organisational learningThe modern world is smaller yet global market that chthonicgoes rapid channel. Today, we ar confronted with the scenario of a changing take a crapforce that is multicultural and diverse in beliefs, ethnicities and conducts. For instance, in the United States virtuoso-quarter of the American workforce is represented by minorities with this manakin expected to grow in the future. Also, women account for fifty percent of the paid workforce in the United States.This diversity presents organisations with both opportunities and unique challenges. A diverse workforce in a global market is grand advantage, but while the benefits are obvious, there are also respective(a) issues that diversity throws up, these issues need attention for work to take place in peaceful and efficient manner.In this modern world that has been shrunk through captivate and communication it is paramount for work teams to consist of employee s with different traits and doingss. It is the job of a tutor to opinionively manage these varied several(prenominal)s and mould the conducts to fill almost harmony and benefit the organisation keeping in mind the comp each(prenominal)s affection values and business aims.Organisational Behaviour is defined as, Actions and attitudes of case-by-cases and groups toward one other and towards the cheek as a whole, and its effect on the organizations mathematical operation and performance. plot Organisational cultivation is stated to be, arrangement and practice of planned systematic switch over in the attitudes, beliefs, and values of the employees through creation and wages of long-term training programs. Its aim is to enable the organization in adopting-better to the fast-changing external environment of new markets, regulations, and technologies. both(prenominal) Organisational Behaviour and Development are interwoven and their concepts are capable of playacting mut ually. Some of the areas where they are used together could be in assertion building exercises, team-work st valuategies, critical listening, cultural exchange and also deportment limiting.What is behavioral Modification?All organisations are set up with positionicular force goals and aims in mind. Various resources including money, machines and manpower are utilised to achieve these goals. late businesses very much refer to their Human Resources (manpower) as their biggest and most important plus and it is widely understood that this single resource plays a vital and unexpendable role in the attainment of success and the achievement of an organisations objectives. Thus, human behaviour at work plays an requirement role in the smooth functioning of day to day activities as well the targeted long term goals. It is essential for a manager to posses the skills to identify and predict un desire behaviour and bring about required changes in order to make human behaviour at wo rk productive and supportive to the organisations goals.In business row the art of modifying and moulding human behaviour is known as behavioral modification. It is a conscious effort on behalf of a supervisor or manager to reinforce each successive step that moves an individual towards or away from a desired or undesired behaviour in the work environment.Behavioural modification is rooted to the fact that behaviour depends on importee and is concerned with inducing new behavioural patterns in an individual that would benefit the organisation.What is bread and butter? backup is a term that is heard often when discussing behaviour modification and is essential to conditioning. In such a consideration it refers to anything an individual might find rewarding. financial support is related to the psychological do of indigence and is environmentally establish. Reinforcers are external environmental events that follow a desired behaviour. Reinforcement could be either positive or interdict and is same(p)ly to strengthen the reception and join on the probability of repetition.Burrhus Frederic Skinner and his component part to the field of Behavioural ModificationB.F. Skinner, an American psychologist and professor at Harvard University is considered to be one of the pioneers of behavioural modification. Most modern day behavioural modification concepts are a result of Skinners work and his most renowned guess is the Reinforcement Theory.Skinners surmise is based on the Law of Effect which states that an individual is highly likely to repeat behaviour when followed by favourable consequents ( advantage) and tends not to repeat a particular behaviour when it is followed by an unfavourable consequence.The Reinforcement TheoryProfessor B.F. Skinner articulated the major theoretical constructs of the Reinforcement Theory. Skinner was of the opinion that internal requirements and drive of an individual are inconsequent and that individuals can be taught to e xhibit behaviours based on events that follow the behaviour.The theory focuses on overriding unwished behaviour and influencing required behaviour assisted by the use of rewards and penalisation that are dealt out as a consequence of the behaviour. This method of behaviour change is commonly known as operant conditioning.There are two essential prerequisites for the effective industriousness of the Reinforcement Theory in real life scenarios, they can be found to a lower place. handlers mustiness(prenominal) be able to find a consequence that is strong enough to bear an impact on the targeted employee.Managers must be able administer a consequence in such a manner that it is mild for the employee to understand the relation between the behaviour that is targeted for change and the resulting consequence.According to the theory managers must know if they are required to increase or decrease the probability of an event. Once this has been decided a manager must then determine if the use of a positive or negative consequence is appropriate. Finally, a manager must consider if it is classify to apply or withhold the consequence to gain a desired behavioural change. The answer to these dilemmas is answered through quaternity unique alternative consequences demonstrable Reinforcement, disconfirming Reinforcement, Punishment and liquidation. They take a shit been explained in greater detail belowPositive ReinforcementPositive reinforcement encourages behaviour by following(a) a response with a favourable consequence. An employee who receives recognition or any other reward is likely to repeat the behaviour. It is advisable for management to have a dedicated program for positive reinforcement as it has been enter to increase job performance and satisfactionNegative ReinforcementNegative Reinforcement is often confused with punishment. While punishment is aimed at diminish the probability of an unsuitable act, negative reinforcement is the termination o r breakup of an unpleasant consequence following a desired behaviour. Negative reinforcement strengthens and increases the repetition of the behaviour.PunishmentThe use of punishment as a managerial st pass judgmentgy is becoming more common. It is applied by confronting an undesired behaviour with an unwanted or uncomfor knock back consequence and it is meant to discourage repetition of the behaviour in question. Punishment discourages certain behaviour but does no have a direct impact on enforcing a positive behaviour either. Punishment has the potential to sour work relationships and thus must be used with caution later evaluation of all relevant aspects of the situation.ExtinctionExtinction is the act of with retentiveness positive reinforcement with the aim of deny and eventual cessation of an unwanted behaviour. Extinction is equally capable of end point good/acceptable behaviour as well if the manager unknowingly fails to recognise an employees office over meter. The mo st common example of unwanted extinction is when an employees suggestions and stimulations are ignored by a superior, it often sinks to the employee holding back his/her opinions in the future and the chance that a helpful input will never see the light of day increases.Something WantedSomething throwaway(prenominal)Something Givenis a reward and a positive reinforcementis punishmentSomething Deniedis punishmentis a reward and a negative reinforcementReinforcement SchedulesThe quantify of reinforcement is paramount to its success, in professional and academic circles the timing of reinforcement is referred to as reinforcement scheduling. In real life work settings it is succeeding(a) to im practical to continually reinforce desired behaviour.Since continuous reinforcement is not practically viable, reinforcement is commonly run according to an intermittent schedule. C.B. Ferster along with B.F. Skinner developed an intermittent system with the following quadruple schedules1) Fi xed Interval A reinforcing stimulus is applied after the transportation system of a certain period of time post the exceedrence of the desired behaviour.e.g. A manager praises individuals in his team only once a week at the Monday morning meeting. In this case the interval is one week and the employee receives recognition for any amount of work done in that specific seven day span.2) shifting Interval A reinforcer is applied at a random stage with no classifiable or definite period of time.e.g. The management team promotes an employee to position of higher(prenominal) authority after an eight month period after recognising his contribution and consistent performance over an unrelated period of time.3) Fixed balance A reinforcer is applied only after a persistent number of desired events have passed.e.g. A sales executive receiving a bonus after hes achieved a certain targeted number of sales4) Variable Ratio A reinforcer is applied only after a certain number of desired results, however, the number of desired results changes from time to time or with different situations.e.g. An employee receives time-off with pay or an awardThe above four-spot schedules are referred to as methods of Partial Reinforcement, where responses are reinforced only part of the time.Reinforcement schedules and their effects on behaviour are explained gain ground with the table below.ScheduleDescriptionWhen applied to IndividualWhen Removed by ManagerOrganizational ExampleContinuous ReinforcementReinforcer follows all responseFast method for establishing new behaviour hurrying method to take a crap extinction of new behaviourPraise and recognition immediate to every responsePartial ReinforcementFixed Interval solution after specific time period is reinforcedSome inconsistency in response frequenciesFaster extinction of motivated behaviour than variable schedulesDaily, weekly or monthly pay checkVariable IntervalResponse after varying period of time (an average) is re inforcedProduces high rate of steady responsesSlower extinction of motivated behaviour than rigid schedulesPromotion, Recognition, transportFixed RatioA fixed number of responses must occur before reinforcementSome inconsistency in response frequenciesFaster extinction of motivated behaviour than variable schedulesPiece rate, Commission on salesVariable RatioA varying number (average) of responses must occur before reinforcementCan produce high rate of responses that is steady and resists extinctionSlower extinction of motivated behaviour than fixed schedulesAwards, Bonus, Time-offSource (Table) O.Behling, C.Schriesheim and J.Tolliver Present Theories and New Directions in Theories of Work Effort daybook of Supplement Abstract Service of the American Psychological Association 1974A run of the mill behavioural modification technique consists of the following four stepsStating the desired behaviour as objectively as possibleMeasuring the current incidence of desired behaviourPro viding the correct consequence to reinforce the desired behaviourMaintain a systematic estimation of behavioural change post the behavioural modification programWhile the Reinforcement Theory is often criticised, the insights the theory provides into individual learning and motivation will always be of importance.Criticisms Limitations of Reinforcement TheoryThere are many criticisms levelled against the Reinforcement Theory, the strongest accusing the system of completely ignoring cognition amongst human beings. It has been argued that a purely theoretical approach fails to address the impact that any alternate motivations might have on human behaviour. The Reinforcement Theory also fails to explain altruism (selfless deeds) whose sole aim is to help another person.Looking past these criticisms the Reinforcement Theory does still have further limitations in practice, a few which are listed below.Limitations of the Reinforcement Theory1) requite and punishment are bound to alter from person to person based on personal preferences and also based on the circumstances under which they are dealt out. Rewards might vary in their attractiveness from one employee to the next and likewise punishment too can have a clench of reactions from rage to total indifference.2) Managers are often confronted with situations that require them to re-think their reward and punishment strategy as it is quite common for reinforcers to lose their value/effect as time goes by. Human nature, be it a child or grown professional causes us to lose interest or arrest oblivious to receiving rewards and reprimands once they are seen as a norm. Just like a child loses interest in candy as a reward, a professional isnt always driven by just the check of a bonus or a few extra years of paid leave and can often be seen to expect it as part of normal procedure and not an incentive.3) It is difficult for the manager to be in complete control of all sources of reinforcement. It is very common for an employees couple group to be a stronger reinforcer than any kind of punishment.4) The system of rewards does not always bring about an internal change, the desired change is just a response to the reward offered. Once the reward is withdrawn, the likelihood of the employee reverting to old behavioural patterns is high.5) Punishment is not always easy to deliver. It is an instrument that must be used with care. Punishment must be consistent and unavoidable, it must follow the undesired act closely (i.e. it must be immediate) and must also be firm.6) Punishment can lead to anger, fear and a range of other negative emotions that are undesirable at work. These emotions will be associated with the manager or superior who inflicts punishment. final stageA